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AMINO ACID ISOLATES & BLENDS

Acetyl L Carnitine

One of the key uses of Acetyl l Carnitine supplement is for fatty acid oxidation helping users burn unwanted body fat. Fatty acids are one the key energy sources the body uses and oxidation is the process by which they're broken down to create energy. The fatty acids cannot penetrate the inner mitochondria membrane (where they are burned for energy), and the key role for L-Carnitine is to transport fatty acids across the mitochondria membrane to allow for oxidation of the fats.

Acetyl l Carnitine BENEFITS of according to published studies:

  • Acetyl l carnitine may improve mental fatigue in those who suffer from chronic fatigue syndrome.Patients with multiple sclerosis are helped by acetyll carnitine, which reduces their fatigue.
  • In aging rats, chronic administration of acetyl l carnitine increases cholinergic synaptic transmission and consequently enhances learning capacity. The memory of aging rats is rejuvenated by giving them a combination of acetyl l carnitine and lipoic acid.
  • Acetyl l carnitine is a promising nutrient for those with diabetic neuropathy. >This nutrient could be helpful in chemotherapy induced peripheral neuropathy.
  • May reduce alcohol-induced cellular damage to organs.
  • May be helpful in geriatric patients with mild depression.
  • Acetyl l carnitine improves the function of mitochondria, the organelles within cells that are involved in energy production.
  • May be effective in the therapy of acute and early chronic Peyronie's disease.
  • May help individuals with degenerative cerebellar ataxia.
  • Acetyl l carnitine is suitable for clinical use in the reduction of neuronal death after peripheral nerve trauma.
  • May be helpful in those with Alzheimer's disease. Acetyl l carnitine protects against amyloid-beta neurotoxicity.As always, we strongly advise you do your own research and more importantly consult your own medical professional before commencing any use of this or any other dietary supplement.This statement has not been evaluated by the FDA. This is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.
  • L Carnitine is derived from the lysine and methionine amino acids. It is mainly synthesized in the liver and the kidneys, and must be transported for use to other tissues in the body. It is found in highest concentration in tissues that use fatty acids as the main dietary fuel, such as the skeletal and cardiac muscles.

L-ARGININE & L-ORNITHINE INFO

The amino acid arginine is a powerful immune enhancer. It plays a role in such diverse body functions as circulation and sexual function. Ornithine has many of the same properties. Teaming these two powerhouses makes a safe, natural and effective supplement for immune system enhancement.

Arginine is synthesized in the liver and kidneys and is not normally considered to be an essential amino acid. However, in times of heightened catabolism and need--such as during extreme stress, trauma, injury, or infection--it becomes essential to the maintenance of optimal health.

Arginine plays a key role in the urea cycle, the metabolic pathway by which urea is created. Urea is used to dispose of excess nitrogen, which can be toxic if the body cannot excrete it fast enough. Arginine is converted to ornithine, which is then used to produce urea in the kidneys. A deficiency in arginine can impair the urea cycle, resulting in a build-up of urea precursors, and increased levels of ammonia in the plasma. In laboratory animals, arginine deficiency has been shown to result in renal complications; in humans, one characteristic of renal (kidney) failure is arginine deficiency. Arginine is also a precursor for nitric oxide, which plays an important role in immune function, neurotransmission, and platelet aggregation and adhesion.

Ornithine plays a key role in the urea cycle, and alpha-ketoglutarate plays a key role in another metabolic pathway--the Krebs cycle. Ornithine also stimulates the synthesis of RNA, DNA, and protein.

Ornithine has been demonstrated to be quite effective in promoting muscle repair and maintaining nitrogen balance after stresses such as trauma or surgery. Nitrogen balance is the ratio of nitrogen ingested (in the form of protein and amino acids) versus nitrogen excreted. In a normal, healthy adult, nitrogen balance should be zero. A negative nitrogen balance occurs when protein is being synthesized. This is a common result of surgery, injury, extreme stress, or excessive exercise. Extensive research in both laboratory animals and in humans indicates that supplementation with Ornithine can alleviate these negative effects.

Recommended dosage:
2gms to 5 gms per day on an empty stomach.

Caution:
Use only as directed. Not for use by diabetics, borderline diabetics, pregnant or lactating women, cancer patients or persons who have had ocular or brain herpes. High dietary levels of arginine and/or ornithine may cause reactivation of latent herpes viruses in a few susceptible individuals. If this occurs, discontinue use. Persons with phenylketonuria (PKU) should not take this product.

L Arginine

As always, we strongly advise you do your own research and more importantly consult your own medical professional before commencing any use of this or any other dietary supplement .This statement has not been evaluated by the FDA. This is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any diseaseResearch studies document that nitric oxide from Arginine has a positive effect increasing muscle mass. · When test animals were given extra Arginine the animals sarcomeres, or muscle fibres, increase in diameter. · In addition to Nitric Oxide production increased muscle growth was observed. · Muscle fibre growth occurred at an accelerated rate.

L-Arginine is in most natural Sexual performance FormulasThere is abundant evidence that the endothelium plays a crucial role in the maintenance of vascular tone and structure. One of the major endothelium-derived vasoactive mediators is nitric oxide (NO), an endogenous messenger molecule formed in healthy vascular endothelium from the amino acid precursor L-arginine. Endothelial dysfunction is caused by various cardiovascular risk factors, metabolic diseases, and systemic or local inflammation. One mechanism that explains the occurrence of endothelial dysfunction is the presence of elevated blood levels of asymmetric dimethyl arginine (ADMA) an L-arginine analogue that inhibits NO formation and thereby can impair vascular function. Supplementation with L-arginine has been shown to restore vascular function and to improve the clinical symptoms of various diseases associated with vascular dysfunction.

Recently, dietary supplements containing Arginine have become popular due to Arginine's nitric oxide producing ability, its ability to scavenge free radicals, as well as its ability to signal muscle cells, support healthy cholesterol, and enhance fat metabolism. Arginine helps regulate salt levels in the body.

For this reason it should be of interest to competing bodybuilders, as retaining water under the skin can make one looks smooth, bloated and washed out. The nitrogen retaining abilities of Arginine are well-known within the bodybuilding and scientific communities. Arginine is also believed to be crucial for muscle growth due to its vasodilation abilities, as well as its ability to participate in protein synthesis.

Because Arginine is a precursor of nitric oxide [which is responsible for vasodilation it is often used to enhance the female sexual experience and for supporting healthy male sexual function.Arginine is necessary for the execution of many physiological processes. These physiological processes include the removal of toxic waste products from the body, and immune system defences.

Arginine increases muscle protein synthesis. L Arginine is an Essential amino acid that the body cannot make naturally. There is abundant evidence that the endothelium plays a crucial role in the maintenance of vascular tone and structure. One of the major endothelium-derived vasoactive mediators is nitric oxide (NO), an endogenous messenger molecule formed in healthy vascular endothelium from the amino acid precursor L-arginine. Endothelial dysfunction is caused by various cardiovascular risk factors, metabolic diseases, and systemic or local inflammation. One mechanism that explains the occurrence of endothelial dysfunction is the presence of elevated blood levels of asymmetric dimethyl arginine (ADMA) an L-arginine analogue that inhibits NO formation and thereby can impair vascular function. Supplementation with L-arginine has been shown to restore vascular function and to improve the clinical symptoms of various diseases associated with vascular dysfunction.L-Arginine BENEFITS of according to published studies.

L – arginine alpha ketoglutamate bitatrate

L – arginine alpha ketoglutamate bitatrate goes without saying that we don't produce "flavor of the month" supplements.. AAKG is no exception and stands atop an exciting new class of extremely powerful, drug-free Nitric Oxide (NO) enhancers. Potent, Arginine Alpha-Ketoglutarate increase strength, stamina, and vigor and speed your muscle growth and recovery. Nitric Oxide & the power of hemodilationNitric Oxide is the key molecule used by your body to transport oxygen, increase blood flow and deliver nutrients to skeletal muscle. This process is called "hemodilation". When hemodilation is accelerated, and best of all SUSTAINED as Nitro AKG does, you'll start to see some amazing things happen to your body. The positive changes begin in as little as one week... and by the one month mark, you could be seeing muscle fullness and hardness like never before from a drug-free compound. Also, look for increased strength and markedly improved stamina (and not of just the athletic variety).

L-Arginine & Nitric OxideWhen it comes to isolated amino acids, it has long been known that very high dosages (typically, 10-15 grams) of L-Arginine taken on an empty stomach can boost short term Nitric Oxide and Growth Hormone (GH) levels. Unfortunately, L-Arginine is not very suitable for use as a long term NO elevation agent due to its inherent limitations.

Even for GH release, the frequent high dosages required, unpleasant taste, stomach upset, etc. make following an effective regimen impractical, if not flat out impossible for most. The technological breakthrough of A-AKGEnter a new, state-of-the-art compound called A-AKGAnd the results?As alluded to earlier, when used as directed (easy to follow, detailed instructions are included) the overall positive effects of AAKG are extremely wide reaching in scope and often nothing short of phenomenal. Best of all, AAKG is free of the negative side-effects seen with anabolic steroids, clenbuterol, Viagra and other common drug based performance and physique enhancers.


DOSAGE: 3gm in water / juice before bed.
  • Creates a "Continuous Muscle Pump
  • Signals Muscle Growth - Speeds Recovery
  • Increases Strength, Stamina & Sexual Vigor

L-Arginine L-Pyroglutamate (APG)

Apg as the focus of world-wide attention in 1981 when Italian researcher A. Isidori, M.D., and his colleagues of the University of Rome determined that a combination of 1200 milligrams L-Lysine and 1200 milligrams L-Arginine L-Pyroglutamate when given orally to a group of 15 male volunteers between the ages of 15 and 20 was more than 10 times more effective at increasing blood levels human growth hormone than taking only the amino acid L-Arginine by itself (yielding a average net HGH increase of more than 700%). According to these researchers, "we could demonstrate that the association of the two amino acids does result in the release of biologically active HGH able to affect peripheral cellular receptors and thus cell growth in general.

DESCRIPTION:
Arginine pyroglutamate is the L-arginine salt of pyroglutamic acid. It is also known as pirglutargine and arginine pidolate. Arginine pyroglutamate is a delivery form of pyroglutamate. Pyroglutamate is formed in the body by the cyclization of the amino acid glutamic acid and is found naturally in plant and animal products, including the brain. Pyroglutamate is also known as 2-oxo-pyrrolidone carboxylic acid or PCA and 5-oxoproline. Pyroglutamate is an intermediate of the gamma-glutamyl cycle of glutathione synthesis and degradation.

Arginine pyroglutamate, which is comprised of the amino acid L-arginine and the imino acid pyroglutamate, is a water-soluble substance.

ACTIONS AND PHARMACOLOGY.

ACTIONS:
Arginine pyroglutamate is reputed to have cognition-enhancing activity. The activity is attributed to pyroglutamate.MECHANISM OF ACTIONSince the action of arginine pyroglutamate is unclear, its mechanism of action is entirely speculative. However, pyroglutamate is structurally related to the drug piracetam, and more is known about piracetam's activity. Piracetam belongs to a class of drugs known as nootropics. The term "nootropic," from the Greek, means "acting on the mind." Piracetam, like pyroglutamate, is a pyrrolidone. Piracetam and related nootropics facilitate learning and memory in animal models, although human studies give mixed results except perhaps in dyslexia.

The effects of piracetam are thought to be mediated through effects on membrane fluidity in the brain. Further, some pyrrolidone-nootropic agents appear to interact with metabotropic glutamate receptors. It is not known whether pyroglutamate has any of these activities.

PHARMACOKINETICS:
Little is known in detail about the pharmacokinetics of arginine pyroglutamate. Arginine pyroglutamate gets absorbed across the small intestine and is transported by the portal circulation to the liver, where both L-arginine and pyroglutamate enter into various metabolic pathways. Some pyroglutamate appears to pass into the brain.INDICATIONS AND USAGEArginine pyroglutamate may help improve cognition (e.g. verbal memory) in the aged, though more research is required to confirm this.RESEARCH SUMMARYThe primary claim made for this arginine salt of pyroglutamic acid relates to cognitive enhancement. It is asserted by some that this substance can help overcome memory defects induced by alcohol abuse and in those with some forms of dementia. Some use the supplement in Italy to treat alcoholism, senility and mental retardation. While such sweeping use is unwarranted based on current findings, there are data that suggest a cognitive-enhancing role for arginine pyroglutamate, though how significant a role is far from established. Some animal studies show that the substance has positive effects in cortical and cholinergic mechanisms and that it has cognition-enhancing properties. And in one double-blind study of aged human subjects, verbal memory was said to be improved in those taking arginine pyroglutamate compared with controls who received placebo.

CONTRAINDICATIONS, PRECAUTIONS, ADVERSE REACTIONS.
  • CONTRAINDICATIONSH: ypersensitivity to any component of the preparation.
  • PRECAUTIONS: Children, pregnant women and nursing mothers should avoid taking arginine pyroglutamate supplements.
  • ADVERSE REACTIONS: Arginine pyroglutamate is generally well tolerated. Minor gastrointestinal complaints have been noted.OVERDOSAGEThere are no known reports of overdosage.
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION:The usual recommended dose is 500 to 1000 milligrams daily. A 500 milligram dose delivers about 150 milligrams of L-arginine and about 350 milligrams of pyroglutamate.

ABOUT B.C.A.A’s

B.C.A.A ‘s are amino acid and are not only essential amino acids but is also a branched-chain found in high concentration in the muscles. l BCAA's are L-Valine ,l-leucine and L-Isoleucine.

B.C.A.A ‘s can not be made by the body, and must be acquired through food or dietary supplements.What does it do and what scientific studies give evidence to support this?

It has a stimulating effect and is needed for muscle metabolism, repair and growth of tissue and maintaining the nitrogen balance in the body.

Since it is a branched-chain amino acid, it can be used as an energy source in the muscles, and in doing so preserves the use of glucose.Who needs it and what are some symptoms of deficiency?B.C.A.A,s are essential amino acids. Therefore, everyone needs BCAA’s to maintain basic health.How much should be taken? Are there any side effects?BCAA’s should be dosed at two parts L-Valine for every two parts L-Leucine and for every one part of L-Isoleucine. This product takes the guess work out and is ready to go .RDA to 5gm per day.

No side effects have been reported, BCAA is generally considered to be safe for healthy persons Consult your physician before using any dietary supplement.

BETA ALANINE

With literally hundreds of different supplements available and so many that are based on bogus claims and ridiculous hype, it's a challenge to find even one that delivers results. If you've rummaged through the garbage of the supplement scrap heap, you know how difficult it is to find solid science or real-world proof. Beta-alanine.

The science behind beta-alanine makes sense and it works. In reading this article, you will understand how beta-alanine works. You will also learn how to maximize its use and how it can help you safely work out much harder and longer. Used properly, beta-alanine can take your training and results to new levels, helping you set personal records and add lean mass. First lets start with some basic background information on beta-alanine.

This supplement actually lives up to its claim: beta-alanine efficacy is backed by major university, peer-reviewed studies performed on humans, not the typical cell or rat studies upon which many supplement manufacturers generally base claims. Background On Beta-Alanine. Although only recently brought to the forefront, beta-alanine was discovered over 100 years ago. Also known as 3-aminopropanoic acid, it is a non-essential amino acid and is the only naturally occurring beta-amino acid. Not to be confused with alanine, beta- alanine is classified as a non-proteinogenic amino acid as it is not used in the building of proteins.

The greatest natural dietary sources of beta-alanine are believed to be obtained through ingesting the beta-alanine containing dipeptides: carnosine, anserine and balenine, rather than directly ingesting beta-alanine. These dipeptides are commonly found in protein rich foods such as chicken, beef, pork and fish.

However, obtaining beta-alanine through these dipeptides is not the only way, as our bodies can synthesize it in the liver from the catabolism of pyrimidine nucleotides which are broken down into uracil and thymine and then metabolized into beta-alanine and B-aminoisobutyrate. Of course, it can also be ingested through direct supplementation which is the focus of this article.

However, obtaining beta-alanine through these dipeptides is not the only way, as our bodies can synthesize it in the liver from the catabolism of pyrimidine nucleotides which are broken down into uracil and thymine and then metabolized into beta-alanine and B-aminoisobutyrate. Of course, it can also be ingested through direct supplementation which is the focus of this article.

Recently, researchers began studying beta-alanine and examining its effects on exercise performance and lean body mass. We owe a great deal of credit and respect to the scientists who are in the trenches doing the work and publishing the research on beta-alanine.

If it wasn't for them, great supplements like beta-alanine and creatine might never have seen the light of day. Their ongoing research has revealed how to properly use these compounds and how to safely and effectively maximize their benefits.

One of the key scientists pioneering the performance research on beta-alanine is Dr. Roger Harris. His name may or may not sound familiar, but it should, as he is the same man that brought creatine to the bodybuilding world with his groundbreaking study in 1992.

It looks like the good doctor has found another juggernaut of a supplement in beta-alanine. However, he is not alone. In the last two years, highly respected research scientist Dr. Jeffrey Stout has been in a frenzy publishing and compiling research on beta-alanine and doesn't look to be slowing down any time soon. Other notable researchers who have been publishing research on beta-alanine include Dr. Tallon, Dr. Hill and Dr. Kim.

How Can Beta-Alanine Benefit Me?

Below is a list of the benefits of beta-alanine. But before we go on to explain how beta-alanine works, you must first understand what's going on in our body's during exercise that limits our gains and muscular performance.

Benefits of Beta-Alanine as supported by Scientific Studies.
  • Boosts explosive muscular strength and power output.
  • Increases muscle mass.
  • Boosts muscular anaerobic endurance.
  • Increases aerobic endurance.
  • Increases exercise capacity so you can train harder and longer. What Stops Us From Reaching Our Full Potential In Making Strength, Endurance And Muscle Mass Gains? When we exercise, especially when it's high intensity exercise, our bodies accumulate a large amount of hydrogen ions (H+), causing our muscles' pH to drop (become more acidic). This process is occurring whether you feel a burn or not.
The breakdown of ATP and the subsequent rise in H+ concentrations occur in all of our energy systems but H+ buildup is most prevalent in an energy system called glycolysis, which also produces lactic acid. At physiological pH, lactic acid dissociates H+ and is the primary source of released H+ ions during exercise, causing pH to drop.

It is the released H+ from lactic acid that causes muscular performance problems, not the leftover lactate ions as many incorrectly believe. While lactic acid is the primary source of released H+, it is not the only source. H+ ions are also being released at a rapid rate when you break down the high energy compound ATP during exercise. With the presence of many sources during energy production releasing H+, pH drops quickly.

As our muscles pH quickly drops, so does their ability to contract forcibly and maintain a high level of performance throughout your workout session. Not being able to perform and maintain forceful muscular contractions and push your body to the limit during your workout session, seriously hampers your ability to maximally overload your muscles and force new muscle gains.

In a nutshell, H+ causes your muscles pH to drop, in turn decreasing your strength and causing you to fatigue faster. These limitations stop you from adequately overloading your muscles and forcing NEW muscle gains. Strength, Endurance And Muscle Mass?

To understand how beta-alanine works to fight the drop in pH within our muscle, you must first understand how carnosine works. The reason being is, beta-alanine's performance benefits are not direct but realized through its ability to boost the synthesis of carnosine.

Background On Carnosine:
The Russian scientist Gulewitsch was the first to identify carnosine in 1900. Eleven years later, he would discover and identify its constituent amino acids, beta-alanine and histidine. Seven years later, Barger and Tutin and Baumann and Ingvaldsen confirmed Gulewitsch's findings. However, it wasn't until 1938 that the first research on carnosine and its effects on muscle buffering were published.

Carnosine is a naturally occurring di-peptide that is found in both type 1 and type 2 muscle fibers, but is in significantly higher concentrations in type 2 fibers. Type 2 muscle fibers are primarily used in high intensity strength workouts and are most responsive to muscular growth.

How Does Carnosine Work?
There are a handful of ways carnosine is thought to impact performance but its most studied function, and the focus of this article, is its role as an intracellular buffer. Carnosine helps stabilize muscular pH by soaking up hydrogen ions (H+) that are released at an accelerated rate during exercise.

Our bodies work to keep our pH in balance by utilizing various buffering systems. Buffers largely work by soaking up H+ to maintain optimal pH balance, which we need to function most effectively. As mentioned above, our muscles function best in a specific pH range. When pH drops below that range, so does muscular performance. By helping to keep us in a more optimal pH range, our muscles can continue to contract forcibly for a longer time.

There are a handful of buffering systems that work in our bodies. Some maintain pH in extra cellular fluids (ECF) outside of the cell, while others perform their duties in intracellular fluids (ICF) inside the cell and some perform in both.

Our focus in this article is on exercise performance and, as mentioned above, the primary source of H+ released during exercise is from lactic acid and ATP breakdown. Take a guess where this breakdown and release of H+ is occurring?

If you guessed inside our muscles or intracellular, you would be correct. As a result, the first line of defense in absorbing the H+ is going to be the cell from intracellular buffers such as carnosine, not from extra cellular buffers.

Aside from carnosine being just where we need it, buffering H+ inside our cells, it has additional, unique attributes that make it really shine. Carnosine is unique; in that, other natural buffering systems our bodies use are also used in many other cellular reactions aside from buffering, watering down much of their buffering abilities.

However, what makes carnosine really exciting, is that by supplementing with extra beta-alanine, we can specifically and dramatically increase carnosine levels. How much, you ask?

Researchers have shown that when supplementing with beta-alanine for just 4 weeks, we can increase our carnosine concentration by 42-65%. Longer beta-alanine studies going up to 10-12 weeks, show carnosine concentrations increased up to 80%. This is a tremendous increase in an already powerful intracellular buffer.

It is this large increase in buffering capacity within our muscles that is largely responsible for the strength, lean body mass, power and muscular endurance gains that researchers are seeing from beta-alanine studies. Summary:By boosting carnosine concentrations, with beta-alanine, our type 2 muscle fibers can soak up more H+ and stay in an optimal pH range. By keeping our type 2 muscle fibers in an optimal pH range, they are better able to maintain maximal strength and endurance throughout your workout session and bring on new muscle gains.

Dosage and Use:
The best time to take Beta-Alanine is before your workout and if you only take 500mg (.5gm daily then that is definitely the time you want to take it. If you don’t workout everyday, you should still take at least one capsule sometime during the day. If you are taking more than 500mg daily, as in a 15 week cycle, then spread out the capsules you take throughout the day as much as possible, with one dosage always being before your workout, if you workout on that day.

CARNOSINE

Carnosine:
(beta-alanyl-L-histidine) is a dipeptide of the amino acids beta-alanine and histamines. It is highly concentrated in muscle and brain tissues.

Researchers in Britain South KoreaRussia and other countries have shown that carnosine has a number of antioxidant properties that may be beneficial. Carnosine has been proven to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) as well as alpha-beta unsaturated aldehydes formed from peroxidation of cell membrane fatty acids during oxidative stress.

Carnosine can oppose glycation and it can chelate divalent metal ions. Chronic glycolysis is suspected to accelerate aging.Carnosine was found to inhibit diabetic nephropathy by protecting the podocytes and mesangial cells. Because of its antioxidant, antiglycator and metal chelator properties, carnosine supplements have been proposed as a general anti-aging therapy.

Some studies have detected beneficial effects of N-acetyl-carnosine in preventing and treating cataracts of the eyes; in one of these, carnosine was found to reduce cloudiness in rat lenses that were exposed to guanidine to cause cataracts(13)However, claims that carnosine confers these and other posited ophthamological benefits are, as of yet, insufficiently supported for endorsement by the mainstream medical community; Britain's Royal College of Ophthamologists, for instance, has asserted that neither safety nor efficacy has been sufficiently demonstrated to recommend carnosine's use as a topical treatment for cataracts.

A small 2002 study reported that carnosine improved on a measure of socialization and receptive vocabulary in children with autism.Improvement in this study could have been due to maturation, educational interventions, placebo effect, or other confounds that were not addressed in the study design. Supplemental carnosine may increase corticosterone levels, which can explain the hyperactivity sometimes seen in high doses.

Typical vegetarian diets are thought to be lacking in carnosine, but whether this has a detrimental effect on vegetarians is controversial.

Carnitine (vitamin Bt)

Carnitine and lysine. Carnitine is the generic term for a number of compounds that include L-carnitine, L-acetylcarnitine, acetyl-L-carnitine, and L-propionyl carnitine. Carnitine can be synthesised within the body from lysine or methionine. As with all amino acids used directly in the metabolism, carnitine exists in the left-handed form. This isomer is expressed as L-carnitine, as it is usually marketed. Carnitine is eaten in the diet in red meats and dairy products, including breast milk, and is also made in the body from breaking down muscle protein and converting it to carnitine.

Carnitine is a nutrient responsible for the transport of long-chain fatty acids into the energy-producing centers of the cells (known as the mitochondria). Carnitine plays a critical role in metabolizing a number of other important substances as well, which helps to explain why it holds promise for so many disorders. Carnitine transports fats into the mitochondria, the cellular powerhouse, where these fats are converted into an energy source for the body. Our heart and skeletal muscle tissue rely on fat utilization as a source of energy, and also to spare glycogen. Carnitine helps the body convert fatty acids into energy, which is used primarily for muscular activities throughout the body. The body produces carnitine in the liver and kidneys and stores it in the skeletal muscles, heart, brain, and sperm. Carnitine can also act as an antioxidant and appears to play a role in maintaining the health of nerves and protecting the liver and kidneys from the toxicity of drugs. is a non-essential amino acid produced in the liver, brain and the kidneys from the essential amino acids methionine.

Carnitine (vitamin Bt) functions, uses, and health benefits

Carnitine helps transport fatty acids to the powerhouse of the cell. Fatty acids are the main fuel source for heart and skeletal muscle. Long-chain fatty acids require l-carnitine to transport them across the inner membranes of the mitochondria, wherein their metabolism produces bioenergy. L-carnitine can remove short-chain and medium-chain fatty acids from the mitochondria in order to maintain coenzyme A levels in these organelles. L-Carnitine also facilitates the metabolism of carbohydrates and enhances the rate of oxidative phosphorylation. L-Carnitine works synergistically with CO-Q10, an antioxidant and energy co-factor that is found in the inner membrane of the mitochondria.

Carnitine plays a critical role in metabolizing a number of other important substances as well, which helps to explain why it holds promise for so many disorders. Carnitine mediates the transport of medium/long-chain fatty acids across mitochondrial membranes, facilitating their oxidation with subsequent energy production. Carnitine may have neuroprotective effects. This means that the strong antioxidant properties of acetyl-L-carnitine may help to prevent oxidative damage to nerve cells that are important for brain functioning.

The strongest evidence for the use of supplemental L-carnitine may be in the management of cardiac ischemia and peripheral arterial disease. It may also more generally be indicated for cardioprotection. It lowers triglyceride levels and increases levels of HDL-cholesterol in some. It is used with some benefit in those with primary and secondary carnitine deficiency syndromes. There is less evidence to support arguments that carnitine is indicated in liver, kidney and immune disorders or in diabetes and Alzheimer's disease.

Carnitine is used for a small percentage of people who are at risk of liver damage from AEDs and is used for children with multiple seizure types who are taking multiple AEDs. Carnitine is used in emergency situations where there is liver damage caused by valproate, or in cases of valproate overdose. It is used in rare diseases involving problems of the transport of carnitine into the mitochondria.

L-carnitine has been marketed as a weight loss supplement, because the primary function of carnitine in human cells is to burn fat as a source of energy. Carnitine supplementation may actually help increase energy, burn fat more efficiently and may improve heart and liver health all at the same time.

Carnitine is recommended as a daily supplement to help maintain blood lipid profile and promote fatty acid utilization within heart muscle. People who take l-carnitine supplements soon after suffering a heart attack may be less likely to suffer a subsequent heart attack, die of heart disease, experience chest pain and abnormal heart rhythms, or develop congestive heart failure. Some studies have shown Carnitine may reduce the pain and complications of lack of oxygen to the heart and improve exercise tolerance in people with existing heart disease.

The function of carnitine is to help the body use stored fat as fuel. Carnitine is helpful for improving exercise performance. Supplementation with carnitine has been said to enhance lipid oxidation, increase VO2max and decrease the accumulation of lactic acid during exercise.

Carnitine reduces the incidence of angina and cardiac arrythmias as well as reduces the need for anti-angina and anti-arrythmic medications.

Acetyl-L-carnitine may be indicated for use in cases of mild Alzheimer's disease, dementia, Down's syndrome, recovery from stroke and for the management of various neuropathies.

Carnitine (vitamin Bt) dosage, intake, recommended daily allowance (RDA)

Carnitine is not an essential amino acid and, since it is not a vitamin or a mineral, no RDA or dietary reference intake (DRI) values have been established. The L-isomer of carnitine (L-carnitine) is the only physiologically useful form of carnitine. Recommended doses of l-carnitine supplements vary depending on the health condition being treated. The normal recommended dose appears to be 500 milligrams (MG) to 1,000 mg per day. Then gradually work up to 2 to 4 grams (2,000 to 4,000 mg) per day. Typical doses of supplemental acetyl-L-carnitine are between 500 mgs to 2 gms daily in divided doses. Doses of 2 to 6 grams per day are typically recommended for cardiovascular, sports performance and weight loss benefits. Infant formulas (including total parenteral nutrition solutions) that do not contain carnitine should be supplemented with carnitine to the levels found in human milk, 11.3 mg/L (70 mmol/L).

Sources of carnitine

Dietary sources of carnitine include foods of animal origin, such as meat and dairy products. Red meat (particularly lamb) and dairy products are the primary sources of carnitine. Carnitine can also be found in fish, poultry, tempeh (fermented soybeans), wheat, asparagus, avocados, and peanut butter. Cereals, fruits, and vegetables contain little or no carnitine. Carnitine can be manufactured in the body provided the requisite vitamins and minerals are also present. A typical Western diet supplies about 100mg of carnitine per day. It is found mostly in red meats and dairy products. Plant foods are not good sources of carnitine. In general, healthy adults do not require dietary carnitine as carnitine stores are replenished through endogenous synthesis from lysine and methionine in the liver and kidneys.

Carnitine deficiency

There are two types of carnitine deficiency, primary and secondary. In both primary and secondary carnintine deficiencies, increased dietary intake and supplements of carnitine can be beneficial. Although the exact mechanism is unknown, it is thought that flooding the body with high concentrations of carnitine assures that some carnitine are able to get into the cells. Carnitine deficiency occurs as a primary genetic defect of carnitine transport and secondary to a variety of genetic and acquired disorders. A person with primary carnitine deficiency has very low levels of carnitine in the blood due to a faulty carnitine transporter which prevents carnitine from getting into the cells where it is needed. The secondary form of carntine deficiency can arise secondary to metalobic disorders in the mitochondria. Blockage of metabolic pathways in the mitochondria leads to a build-up of acyl compounds. Infants are particularly susceptible to carnitine depletion, because the demands of tissue accretion associated with rapid growth exceed the ability of the infant to synthesize carnitine.

Carnitine overdose, toxicity, side effects

There have been no reports of toxicity from L-carnitine overdosage. The oral LD50 of L-carnitine in mice is 19.2 grams per kilogram. D-carnitine supplements should be avoided as they interfere with the natural form of L-carnitine and may produce undesirable side effects. L-carnitine supplementation may cause mild gastrointestinal symptoms, including nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps and diarrhea. Adverse effects may include transient nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps and diarrhea. Less frequent reactions may include body odour or gastrointestinal symptoms. Other rare side effects include increased appetite, body odor, and rash.

CHOLINE

Mental processes like memory and attention are complex processes, so they cannot be addressed with a single pathway. At the same time, it is well-known that acetylcholine (Ach) is central to our mental function, and especially our ability to focus and to remember facts and verbal information. Acetylcholine is made in the nervous system from a B-vitamin-like raw material called choline which comes from lecithin. Lecithin, found in foods such as eggs, soybeans, peanuts, and liver, is the predominant source of choline in the human diet.Health Benefits of Choline Bitartrate.

Growing evidence now suggests that dietary choline is very important for the prevention of many pathologic conditions, and has been used as a dietary supplement for the purpose of treating or preventing several human diseases including arteriosclerosis and certain deficiencies of brain function and memory.Choline has also been shown to be essential for proper brain development in infants and children. In fact, supplementation of animal diets with choline or lecithin at particular times of brain development has been shown to permanently increase cognitive function. Lower levels of acetylcholine are associated with memory loss and learning difficulties that occur in aging brains. In one experiment, university students improved test scores after taking supplemental choline.

Creatine Monohydrate

What is creatine?Visit any health food store or browse through a sports magazine and you'll probably come across creatine and, in particular, creatine supplements. But what is it and what does it do?

Creatine is produced naturally by the body and helps to improve muscles' performance during exercise. This improvement in performance should allow you to train at higher levels for certain sports and gain muscle.

Foods such as meat and fish provide much of the body's creatine and the rest is made in the body by the liver, kidneys and pancreas. It is stored in the muscles as phosphocreatine (you may find it referred to as PC) contributing to the body's energy stores used during intense exercise.Why take creatine supplements?Increasing the muscle stores of phosphocreatine by taking a creatine supplement theoretically improves the ability to maintain power output during intensive exercise. It is also thought to aid recovery between short bursts of activity. This effect could benefit your training program and provide an important edge when competing.

Taking creatine supplements can increase your muscle stores of phosphocreatine by roughly 20 per cent on average. However, the exact increase can vary depending on the individual - the range is somewhere between 10 per cent and 40 per cent.1

Increasing your muscle stores of creatine is particularly beneficial if you are involved in sports that involve short bursts of intense exercise. It can also help you maintain higher training volumes.Creatine and different types of physical performanceEvidence suggests that creatine supplementation is probably more useful for those sports whose activities require a good anaerobic performance.2 such activities include weight lifting, sprinting, football and rugby. There have been many studies to examine its effect in this area and over half of these have shown quite positive outcomes. Therefore, for those athletes whose sport requires strength combined with intense activity, this supplement could help.

However, for sports requiring mainly aerobic performance there is less evidence that creatine supplementation is helpful. So, for the endurance athletes - such as runners, cyclists and long distance swimmers - the case is not so strong. Nevertheless, a few studies have shown some improvement in performance.3 For example, a study at Louisiana State University found that creatine supplements delayed the onset of muscle fatigue in endurance athletes by boosting their lactate thresholds.4 So, for some aerobic sports, it may be useful.Will taking creatine supplements alter my body weight or body composition?Studies have shown that creatine supplementation does increase body weight and also has an effect on body composition.5,6 In particular it increases muscle mass and this effect has been found in both male and female athletes. Weight increases of up to 4kg have been reported after a period of six weeks with creatine supplementation.

It is thought that this weight gain occurs because increases in the concentration of creatine in the muscles has the effect of drawing water into the muscle cells, thus increasing cell volume. This increase in volume acts as an anabolic signal which helps to reduce protein breakdown and improves the body's usage of protein. The end result is an increase in lean body tissue.What's the best way to supplement the diet with creatine?The most extensively used form of supplement is creatine monohydrate. It is a white powder which is almost tasteless and dissolves in water. Ideally, creatine should be taken together with some carbohydrate-rich food. This is because the carbohydrate increases the concentration of insulin in the blood stream which, in turn, helps the creatine to be absorbed by the muscle cells. A snack containing between 30g to 40g of carbohydrate is ideal for this purpose. For example, a banana, two thick slices of whole meal bread, or a bowl of muesli.

There are other forms of creatine. For example, creatine phosphate and creatine citrate. However, these are not absorbed any more readily and are also more expensive.How much should I take?As far as the dosage of creatine is concerned, there are a number of different recommendations. There are no Recommended Daily Amounts (RDAs) for creatine as such. However, most manufacturers suggest starting off with a loading dose of about 20g per day for five days. After this initial period, follow up with a "maintenance" dose of around 2g per day on an ongoing basis. There is no benefit in taking a higher dose since muscles have a maximum storage capacity and any excess is simply lost from the body.Is creatine supplementation safe and are there any side effects?Studies so far have not highlighted any problems.7,8 If you are training and taking creatine supplements you will almost certainly gain weight, particularly lean body mass. Creatine supplementation is not illegal and is allowed by the International Olympic Committee.

Key points:
  • Creatine monohydrate is the most widely used form of creatine supplement
  • Creatine is made up of three amino acids and is stored as phosphocreatine in muscles
  • Creatine delays muscle fatigue by "buffering" the build up of lactic acid in the muscles
  • It speeds up recovery between bouts of high-intensity physical activity
  • It extends maximal muscle power output
  • It increases total body mass - particularly lean muscle tissue
  • May be especially beneficial to athletes involved in high-intensity activities particularly where interval training and strength training are involved i.e. anaerobic activities
  • There is a small amount of evidence that it may also help athletes involved in mainly aerobic activities.
  • for example endurance running and cycling
  • although the evidence is not strong
Dosage:
there are a variety of recommendations, however the most widely used is a loading dose of 20g per day for five days, followed by a maintenance dose of 2g per day. Doses in excess of this are of no benefit as muscle can only store a certain amount and any excess is removed from the body.

Side-effects:
There appear to be no proven side-effects.
Creatine supplementation is allowed in sport by the International Olympic Committee (2002) Why do some athletes use it?Some athletes say that creatine monohydrate helps build muscle mass and improves performance and delays muscle fatigue during short-duration, high-intensity exercise, such as sprinting or weight lifting.

DIRECTIONS:
During loading phase, mix one (1) rounded teaspoon (5g) into 8oz of water or non-acidic juice, (4) times daily for (3) days. During maintenance phase, mix one (1) rounded teaspoon (5g) into 8oz of water or non-acidic juice, 2 times daily. (Once 30 min. before workout, once 30 min. after workout) As always, we strongly advise you do your own research and more importantly consult your own medical professional before commencing any use of this or any other dietary supplement .This statement has not been evaluated by the FDA. This is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

Creatine Ethyl Ester Info

What is it and where does it come from?Creatine Ethyl Ester HCL (CEE) is creatine monohydrate with an ester attached. Esters are organic compounds that are formed by esterification - the reaction of carboxylic acid and alcohols. What does it do and what scientific studies give evidence to support this?Regular creatine monohydrate has been shown effective at increasing lean muscle mass muscle strength and athletic performance.

However, regular creatine monohydrate is absorbed poorly by the body - and its effectiveness is dependant upon the cells ability to absorb it. The poor absorption rate of regular creatine monohydrate requires the creatine user to ingest large dosages of creatine to achieve desired effect.

However, regular creatine monohydrate is absorbed poorly by the body - and its effectiveness is dependant upon the cells ability to absorb it. The poor absorption rate of regular creatine monohydrate requires the creatine user to ingest large dosages of creatine to achieve desired effect.

Because creatine draws water to the cell, and because most ingested creatine monohydrate is not absorbed, unabsorbed creatine will sit outside of the target cell with the water, and this will result in the "creatine bloat."

Long-term clinical studies have proven that creatine monohydrate is safe for use by persons free of medical complication, but why would you want to ingest more creatine monohydrate than you have to simply because your creatine is inefficient?

Creatine ethyl ester is creatine monohydrate with an ester attached. The attachment of an ester is significant, because esters are found in the fat tissue of animals. But, why is this important? What role does this have in the absorption of creatine?

All substances that you put into your body will affect its operation. There are three ways that substances can affect a cells operation. They are: 1. Ligand binding to protein receptor sites.

Secondary messenger / metabotropic systems

3. Passive permeation of the cell wall via lipids

When a substance enters the body and affects the bodies operation, it is known as a ligand. The soma and dendrites of the cell have protein receptor sites to which ligands can bind. The process of a ligand binding with a receptor site is akin to a lock and key: only keys of a certain shape work with certain locks. When they work and cause the cells stimulation they are called agonists. When they block the cell from functioning they are called antagonists.

When a ligand binds with the receptor site of a target cell, the cell, in the simplest of cases, changes its shape, opens up its ion channels and changes its function. In so-called "secondary messenger" or metabotropic cells, the ligand binds with the receptor site and an internal protein known as a g-protein is released. This released protein then binds to an internal site inside of the cell, and then the cell changes its behavior by opening its ion channels. Cells that operate in this way are known as metabotropic cells because their operation requires metabolic energy.

Passive permeation is a process that describes the diffusion of a substance across a cell membrane through the use of lipids as transport mechanisms. Because no "work" is being done by the cell in this model, this model is called passive permeation.

Creatine monohydrate utilizes lipids to permeate the cell wall and enter the cell. Because of this, the esterification of creatine, and the presence of esters in animal fat tissue, becomes significant.

Creatine monohydrate is semi-lipopholic. This means that it inefficiently uses fat as a transport mechanism. The esterification of substances will increase their lipopholic abilities, and thus esterified creatine will use fat more efficiently to permeate the cell wall and exert its effects upon cellular function than its unesterified creatine monohydrate counterpart.

This means, simply, that not only will dosage requirements be lower, but the absorption of esterified creatine will be increased and the infamous "creatine bloat" will be eliminated! Who needs it and what are some symptoms of deficiency?Creatine Ethyl Ester can benefit persons of all ages, as it displays the same benefits as regular creatine monohydrate. Is Creatine Ethyl Ester real?Much controversy has been generated over creatine ethyl ester. Companies and individuals with a financial interest in promoting creatine monohydrate products have attempted to discredit creatine ethyl ester. Some companies have even gone so far as to commission laboratory reports that show that creatine ethyl ester is not real.

COA's - certificates of analysis - proving that creatine ethyl ester is real. These are included so that you, the consumer, can make up your own mind - so that you can base your choices upon the power of information.

The esterification of creatine is chemically possible and not hard to conceive. Those who claim that CEE is fake are denying obvious science and are cheating the consumer. How much should be taken? Are there any side effects?2 – 5 gms 20 minutes before exercise.

No side effects have been reported in scientific literature.

ISOLEUCINE

Increase Endurance And Help Repair Muscle Tissue!

Isoleucine is an amino acid that is best known for its ability to increase endurance and help heal and repair muscle tissue. This amino acid is especially important to serious athletes and body builders because its primary function in the body is to boost energy and help the body recover from strenuous physical activity.

Isoleucine is a branched-chain amino acid (BCAA). There are three branched-chain amino acids in the body, isoleucine, valine, and leucine, and all of them help promote muscle recovery after exercise. Isoleucine is actually broken down for energy within the muscle tissue.Isoleucine is an essential acid, which means that it cannot be manufactured in the body and must be obtained through dietary sources. People that exercise a lot or that have a low-protein diet should consider supplementation. Isoleucine should always be taken together with the other two branched-chain amino acids, leucine and valine. The ideal balance is 2 milligrams of leucine and valine for each 1 milligram of isoleucine.

L-DOPA

L-Dopa (L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine) is an amino acid that is formed in the liver and converted into dopamine in the brain. It is essential for integrated movement of individual muscle groups.

Dopamine apparently does not enter the brain from the blood, and is ineffective when it is medically administered. L-Dopa enters the brain through the blood and then it is converted into dopamine.

What it is: L-Dopa is an amino acid, which converts to Dopamine. Dopamine is an essential component of our body and it is required for proper functioning of the brain.

What it does: Although L-Dopa Extract is well known for its treatment of Parkinson's, there are many other benefits. L-Dopa Extract has been shown to significantly increase the body's natural production of human growth hormone (HGH). This is very important because increasing HGH has powerful Health benefits for both men and women.

The benefits to your body are: Mucuna Pruriens gives us an "All Natural" source of L-Dopa Extract. Because the L-Dopa is extracted from a natural plant source, our body actually absorbs and utilizes a higher percentage. The improved absorption means you experience better results with smaller servings. Because the L-Dopa Extract is from an "All Natural" source, the L-Dopa extract has no side effects.

With "Mucuna Pruriens" L-Dopa Extract, you have better absorption and no side effects.

Dosage: usage 250mg to 500mg per day best before bed.

It is recommended that you consult your professional health care provider before supplementing L-Dopa into your daily diet.

L-Glutamine

L-glutamine is the most prevalent amino acid in the blood. Human cells readily manufacture L-glutamine, and under normal circumstances, dietary intake and production of L-glutamine is sufficient. However, in times of stress or increased energy output, the body's tissues need more L-glutamine than usual, making supplementation important.

Some studies suggest that L-glutamine may boost the immune system. Scientists think that taking L-glutamine orally may enhance the activity of infection-fighting white blood cells and other agents. It may also decrease the permeability of the intestines, thus making it harder for invaders to attack the body.

One of L-glutamine’s most important functions involves the support of cellular energy, growth and repair. L-glutamine levels have been found to be decreased in endurance athletes who train too often and at high intensity. In fact, these athletes tend to have a higher incidence of infectious diseases and allergies, and have been noted to have swollen lymph nodes and experience slower wound healing. Athletes undergoing a strenuous workout schedule may be able to reduce the risk of infections by supplementing with L-glutamine.What Is L-Glutamine?How To Use It.

Due to its anti-catabolic properties and the fact that it accelerates glycogen synthesis after a workout, glutamine is best taken 20-30 minutes after a workout. On days that you don't workout, just take it with your last meal of the day. While there is much debate amongst experts as far as dosage is concerned, I always like to remain on the conservative side. Therefore, I feel that 3-5 grams is a sufficient dosage to start with and as your stomach gets used to it you can increase it to as much as 10-15 grams.

As far as side effects , slight stomach discomfort during the first week of use (straight powder form). Other than that, no other side effects and I have not found any literature that links its use to anything bad.

Recommend that you start with a low dosage (such as only 3 grams a day) in order to assess your tolerance. From there you can build up to 10-15 grams split in 2-3 servings per day (1 in the morning, 1 after the workout and another one before bed). I would reserve the highest dosage schedule for periods of extremely hard training such as pre-contest training.

By looking at the effects that this supplement can provide you with, along with the fact that these days it can be purchased for a very cheap price, we wonder why more athletes don't use it. This is especially important during dieting, as a way to protect the muscle from being cannibalized by the effects of cortisol.As always, we strongly advise you do your own research and more importantly consult your own medical professional before commencing any use of this or any other dietary supplement .This statement has not been evaluated by the FDA. This is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease Side Effects.

DIRECTIONS:
As a dietary supplement, mix one (1) rounded teaspoon (5g) into 8oz of water or your favorite beverage once thirty (30) minutes before training and once thirty (30) minutes after training. If you are not training/working out just take one (1) rounded teaspoon (5g) a day.

L-Glutamine the most abundant amino acid in muscle cells. It is released from the muscle during times of stress (such as hard weight training workouts) and dieting. This amino acid not only has been shown to be a great anti-catabolic agent (protects the muscle from the catabolic activities of the hormone cortisol), to be a contributor to muscle cell volume, and to have immune system enhancing properties but also to help in the following ways:
  • Regulation of protein synthesis (this is one of the ways in which steroids exert their muscle building effects).
  • Accelerating glycogen synthesis after a workout.
  • Sparing the use of the glycogen stored in the muscle cell (recall that the glycogen stored in the muscle cell is what gives the cell the healthy volume and firmness that you seek).
  • Faster recuperation from weight training workouts.

Glycine

DESCRIPTIONG:
lycine is a protein amino acid found in the protein of all life forms. It is the simplest amino acid in the body and the only protein amino acid that does not have chirality. Although most glycine is found in proteins, free glycine is found in body fluids as well as in plants. The normal diet contributes approximately 2 grams of glycine daily.

Glycine is not considered an essential amino acid, i. e., the cells in the body can synthesize sufficient amounts of glycine to meet physiological requirements. However, glycine is of major importance in the synthesis of proteins, peptides, purines, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), nucleic acids, porphyrins, hemoglobin, glutathione, creatine, bile salts, one-carbon fragments, glucose, glycogen, and L-serine and other amino acids. Glycine is also a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system (CNS). Glycine and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) are the major inhibitory neurotransmitters in the CNS. Recently, a glycine-gated chloride channel has been identified in neurophils that can attenuate increases in intracellular calcium ions and diminish oxidant damage mediated by these white blood cells. Thus, glycine may be a novel antioxidant.

Glycine is also known as amino acetic acid, aminoethanolic acid, glycocoll, glycinium and sucre de gelatine. Its IUPAC abbreviation is Gly and its one-letter abbreviation, used when spelling out protein structures, is G. It is a neutral amino acid. Glycine is a solid water-soluble substance that has a sweetish taste.

ACTIONS:
Supplemental glycine may have antispastic activity. Very early findings suggest it may also have antipsychotic activity as well as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities.

MECHANISM OF ACTION:
In the CNS, there exist strychnine-sensitive glycine binding sites as well as strychnine-insensitive glycine binding sites. The strychnine-insensitive glycine-binding site is located on the NMDA receptor complex. The strychnine-sensitive glycine receptor complex is comprised of a chloride channel and is a member of the ligand-gated ion channel superfamily. The putative antispastic activity of supplemental glycine could be mediated by glycine's binding to strychnine-sensitive binding sites in the spinal cord. This would result in increased chloride conductance and consequent enhancement of inhibitory neurotransmission.

The ability of glycine to potentiate NMDA receptor-mediated neurotransmission raised the possibility of its use in the management of neuroleptic-resistant negative symptoms in schizophrenia.

Animal studies indicate that supplemental glycine protects against endotoxin-induced lethality, hypoxia-reperfusion injury after liver transplantation, and D-galactosamine-mediated liver injury. Neutrophils are thought to participate in these pathologic processes via invasion of tissue and releasing such reactive oxygen species as superoxide. In vitro studies have shown that neutrophils contain a glycine-gated chloride channel that can attenuate increases in intracellular calcium and diminsh neutrophil oxidant production. This research is ealy-stage, but suggests that supplementary glycine may turn out to be useful in processes where neutrophil infiltration contributes to toxicity, such as ARDS. PHARMACOKINETICS:
Following ingestion of glycine, the amino acid is absorbed from the small intestine via an active transport mechanism. From the small intestine, glycine is transported to the liver by means of the portal circulation where a portion enters into one of several metabolic pathways. Glycine not metabolized in the liver enters the systemic circulation and is distributed to various tissues in the body. Glycine readily crosses the blood-brain barrier.

INDICATIONS AND USAGE:
Glycine may be indicated to help alleviate the symptoms of spasticity. An indication for potentiating some anti-convulsant drugs and preventing some seizures could emerge, as could an indication for its use in managing schizophrenia. Research in progress also suggests usefulness in some cancers. There is no evidence to support use of glycine as an ergogenic aid, and it is too early to say whether it can play any useful role in lipid metabolism. There are no well-designed clinical trials to support its use in benign prostate hypertrophy.

RESEARCH SUMMARY:
Glycine first attracted interest in the medical research community for its reputed ability to dampen reflex excitability in the CNS. A pilot study of its effects on severe chronic leg spasticity (most of the subjects were suffering from chronic multiple sclerosis) yielded improvement in spasticity and mobility of the lower limbs, rated at about 25% overall. The dose used was 1 gram daily for six months to a year. All patients noted some benefits, and no adverse events were recorded. Other researchers have since reported that glycine can potentiate some but not all anticonvulsant drugs in some animal models. It has also been shown to prevent some experimentally produced seizures.

The effects of oral glycine (200 mg/kg/day) were tested in two siblings suffering from 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase deficiency, an inborn error of L-serine biosynthesis. A significant amount of glycine is made from L-serine. Among the features of this disorder are intractable seizures. L-serine in doses up to 500 mg/kg/day failed to control the seizures, but oral glycine completely stopped them, and electroencephalographic abnormalities resolved after six months of treatment.

High-dose glycine may be beneficial in the management of enduring negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Twenty-two treatment-resistant schizophrenic patients participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, six-week, crossover treatment trial with 0.8 grams per kilogram daily of glycine added to their ongoing antipsychotic medication. Glycine intake ranged from 40 to 90 grams daily. Only mild gastrointestinal side effects (nausea and vomiting) were reported in one patient taking glycine. Patients taking glycine experienced significantly diminished negative symptoms. Followup studies are planned.

Recent animal studies suggest that glycine may have some anti-cancer properties. In one recent study, 51 weeks of glycine supplementation did not stop early foci formation of cancer but reduced formation of small liver tumors by 23%, medium-sized tumors by 64% and large tumors by nearly 80% in rats given an agent that is a peroxisome proliferator and liver carcinogen.

In another recent study, dietary glycine inhibited B16 melanoma tumors in mice. Glycine-supplemented mice had tumors that were 50 to 70% smaller in size than those in controls. The protective mechanism in this case appeared to be inhibition of angiogenesis effected by suppressed endothelial-cell proliferation. Tumors in mice fed glycine had 70% fewer arteries than were present in the tumors of controls.

Whether very preliminary data suggesting some positive effects of glycine on lipid metabolism will be mirrored in human research remains to be seen.

Partly because glycine is a precursor of creatine, some have assumed that it might have some of the same ergogenic potential that has been claimed for creatine. This, so far, has not been demonstrated. Glycine is claimed to be beneficial for benign prostatic hypertrophy based on a dated clinical study that has never been confirmed.

CONTRAINDICATIONS:
Glycine supplementation is contraindicated in those hypersensitive to any component of the preparation. It is also contraindicated in those who are anuric (some glycine gets converted to ammonia).

PRECAUTIONS:
Glycine supplementation should be avoided by pregnant women and nursing mothers. Because of some conversion of glycine to ammonia, those with hepatic impairment should avoid glycine supplementation unless prescribed.

ADVERSE REACTIONS:
Doses of 1 gram daily are very well tolerated. Mild gastrointestinal symptoms are infrequently noted. In one study doses of 90 grams daily were also well tolerated.

INTERACTIONS:
Antispastic drugs. Theoretically, supplemental glycine might have additive effects when used in conjunction with baclofen, diazepam, dantrolene sodium and tizanidine.

No other drug, nutritional supplement, food or herb interactions are known. OVERDOSAGE:
There are no reports of overdosage in humans. The majority of mice receiving 3 to 4.5 grams per kilogram by intravenous infusion experienced bradycardia, prolongation of the PQ interval, QRS duration and death.

DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION:
Glycine is available in 500 milligram tablets and capsules. Those who supplement use up to 1 gram daily in divided doses. Doses used for management of schizophrenia have ranged from 40 to 90 grams daily.As always, we strongly advise you do your own research and more importantly consult your own medical professional before commencing any use of this or any other dietary supplement .This statement has not been evaluated by the FDA. This is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

L- CITRULLINE

An amino acid ideal for cardiovascular health!
Promotes energy!

How Does L-Citrulline Powder Work? L-Citrulline is a nonessential amino acid that assists with the detoxification of ammonia from the liver. It's converted to L-arginine, then nitric oxide, in the bloodstream, supporting the body in optimizing blood flow.

Benefits of L-citrulline include:· Helps combat fatigue · Helps detoxify ammonia in the liver minimizing damage to living cells. ·L-Citrulline.

L-Citrulline Blood Flow, Detoxification, Sexual Performance Supports cardiovascular health by relaxing blood vessels, allowing for increased blood flow and more blood and nutrients circulating in the body. Helps the liver's detoxification process by converting toxic ammonia into urea for elimination. Produces nitric oxide, a key component in the relaxation and dilation of blood vessels, which not only supports cardiac function but also enhances sexual function and enjoyment. L Citrulline has the added benefit of being chemically recycled back into arginine in the endothelial cells of the blood vessels. Citrulline and arginine have similar benefits, however citrulline is a more active and readily available nutrient for cardio function, and it is also a preferred source of nitric oxide synthesis because a greater percentage is directed toward nitric oxide production. is an amino acid that supports the body in optimizing blood flow through its conversion to L-arginine and then nitric oxide. Nitric oxide is involved in vasodilatation and low levels are associated with mental and physical fatigue and sexual dysfunction. L-Citrulline ( like L-Arginine and L-Ornithine), is a metabolite in the urea cycle and is involved in liver detoxification and vasodilatation pathways. It is produced in the urea cycle when carbamoyl phosphate is converted to L-Citrulline in the ornithine carbamoyl transferees reaction. When endogenous supplies of ornithine carbamoyl transferees are insufficient, supplemental L-Citrulline has been shown to support ammonia incorporation and liver detoxification of ammonia Optimizes blood flow through conversion to L-arginine.

Low levels have been associated with mental and physical fatigue and sexual disorders.
  • Each 1-1/2 tablespoon serving delivers 3,000 mg 3 grams of L-citrulline.
  • · Convenient powder mixes easily with juice or water.

L-Citrulline AKG 2:1

Improve Aerobic Performance And Capacity!Citrulline is a non-essential amino acid.

Overall, studies suggest that citrulline malate supplementation can boost athletic performance and enhance recovery by eliminating the amino acid breakdown products of protein metabolism and augmenting the detoxifying capacity of liver cells in removal of ammonium and lactate from the blood. and plays a role in nitrogen balance and metabolic processes. Although not a component of most proteins in the body, citrulline is found in some specialized proteins in the hair, skin and neural cells. It is primarily synthesized from glutamine in the intestines but is also found naturally in trace amounts in some foods. Supplementation of citrulline malate to humans has shown promising results. In several human studies blood lactate concentrations were reduced and ammonia elimination was increase after physical exertion. Rapid recovery from physical effort correlated to the disappearance of lactate from blood after performance at a high level of acidosia suggesting an essential role in acid-base balance.

L-Leucine

Leucine is one of three branched-chain amino acids (the others are valine and isoleucine) that enhance energy, increase endurance, and aid in muscle tissue recovery and repair. L-Leucine is an essential amino acid and works with isoleucine and valine to protect muscle and act as fuel. This group also lowers elevated blood sugar levels and increases growth hormone production. Supplemental valine should always be combined with isoleucine and valine at a respective milligram ratio of 2:1:2.

L-leucine is an essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.

Description: White crystals or crystalline powder , slightly bitter taste.

Synonyms: (2S)-α-2-amino-4-methylvaleric acid , L , leu , leucine, 2-amino-4-methylvaleric acid , (2S)-α-leucine

Molecular formula: C6H13NO2
Molecular Weight: 131.17
CAS NO.: 56-89-3

L-Lysine

L-Lysine is an essential amino acid which bodies cannot produce it, and, therefore, we must obtain it from our diet or through supplementation. There are various medications for shingles that include antiviral drugs, steroids, topical agents, and so on. Some people swear by L-lysine natural help for shingles. Lysine is required for collagen synthesis and it may be important to bone health because it appears to help the body absorb and conserve calcium. Lysine is required for collagen synthesis and it may be important to bone health because it appears to help the body absorb and conserve calcium which both reducing the number of outbreaks and alleviating the severity of the symptoms.Benefits of LysineHerpes and Shingles L-lysine can be used to treat mouth and genital lesions caused by herpes simplex virus as well as shingles caused by herpes zoster viruses. Taking lysine supplements can speed recovery time and reduce the chance of recurrent breakouts of the herpes infection. Osteoporosis L-lysine helps improve the absorption of calcium from the digestive tract and prevent loss of calcium in the urine. In so doing, some researchers speculate that L-lysine may help prevent bone loss associated with osteoporosis. In addition, test tube studies suggest that L-lysine in combination with L-arginine (another amino acid) increases the activity of bone-building cells and enhances production of collagen. Dietary Sources Good sources of lysine are foods rich in protein including meat (specifically red meat, pork, and poultry), cheese (particularly parmesan), certain fish (such as cod and sardines), nuts, eggs, soybeans (particularly tofu, isolated soy protein, and defatted soybean flour), spirulina, and fenugreek seed. Lysine is available in tablets, capsules, creams, and liquids, and is usually sold in the l-lysine form.

N-ACETYL-CYSTEINE

N-acetyl-cysteine, derived from the simple amino acid cysteine, provides significant protection against a broad array of modern toxins. Supplementation with N-acetyl-cysteine thus helps the body produce glutathione at more beneficial levels. Glutathione is often considered the body’s most important antioxidant because of its location within the cell, which enhances its ability to neutralize free radicals.

N-acetyl-cysteine helps protect the liver from potentially adverse effects of exposure to a broad range of toxic chemicals, including those chemicals that can poison the body through cumulative use.N-acetyl-cysteineL-cysteineGlutathione.

Even though many published studies show that garlic, selenium, alpha-lipoic acid, L-cysteine and N-acetyl-cysteine can boost cellular glutathione levels, people with health problems may benefit from taking high doses of glutamine. Those with cataracts or liver disease may want to take 500 mg a day of this very potent antioxidant.

N-acetyl-cysteine is the more efficiently absorbed and used form of L-cysteine. N-acetyl-cysteine can act as an antioxidant and is helpful against viruses. N-acetyl-cysteine has been used as a liver protectant and to break up pulmonary and bronchial mucus. N-acetyl-cysteine can boost glutathione levels in cells and can treat acetaminophen induced liver injury.

Dosage and useCaution:

When taking L-cysteine, N-acetyl-cysteine, or glutathione, it is recommended that three times as much vitamin C should be taken at the same time to prevent these amino acids from being oxidized in the body.
  • 500mg to 1.5GM daily are suggested.
  • This product may be taken with or without food. (gamma-L-glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-glycine) is a peptide (short protein)-like molecule synthesized in the body from the three amino acids L-glutamic acid, L-cysteine, and glycine. Glutathione is one of the body’s most important and powerful antioxidants. A major function of vitamin C is to keep glutathione, L-cysteine, and N-acetyl-cysteine in reduced form so that they can continue to have their powerful free radical quenching effects. is a conditionally essential amino acid, one of only three sulfur-containing amino acids, the others being taurine (which can be produced from L-cysteine) and L-methionine from which L-cysteine can be produced in the body by a multi-step process. L-cysteine can act as an antioxidant, may prevent liver diseases, and can help to thicken the individual diameters of existing hair if taken regularly. is the acetylated form of L-cysteine which is more efficiently absorbed and used. It is also an antioxidant that is helpful against viruses. N-acetyl-cysteine has been used as a liver protectant and to break up pulmonary and bronchial mucus. N-acetyl-cysteine can boost glutathione levels in cells.

L-ORNITHINE ALPHA KETOGLUTARATE OKG

increases tissue levels of

  • OKG supplements, taken at doses shown to be effective (10-15 grams per day) glutamine and arginine, which increase growth hormone levels and are regulators of protein synthesis.
  • Studies show that OKG generates more glutamine and arginine in the systemic circulation than when these substances are given orally.


  • OKG is a salt formed by combining two molecules of the amino acid ornithine and one molecule of alpha-ketoglutarate. Because OKG seems to be involved in amino acid synthesis and protein availability, many athletes supplement with OKG as a way to increase muscle mass, hormone levels and strength.


  • Taking OKG decreases muscle protein catabolism (breakdown) and increases protein synthesis, in addition to promoting wound healing. OKG fulfills these functions by encouraging the secretion of insulin and human growth hormone, and by upregulating glutamine and arginine production. When given to trauma patients, there are significant increases in both IGF-1 and growth hormone levels.

L-Ornithine

Ornithine is an amino acid that does not occur in proteins but is important in the formation of urea. L-Ornithine is a nonprotein amino acid. It is used in the body in the biosynthesis of L-arginine, L-proline and polyamines.

L-Ornithine is a basic amino acid, positively charged at physiological pH. It is also known as alpha,delta-diaminovaleric acid and 2,5-diaminopentanoic acid. Its molecular formula is C5H12N2O2, and its molecular weight is 132.16 daltons.

L-Ornithine is used as a nutritional supplement principally for its putative anabolic activity. There is little evidence to support this use. However, a derivative of L-ornithine called ornithine alpha-ketoglutarate or OKG may, under certain conditions, have immunomodulatory and anticatabolic and/or anabolic actions.

Ornithine is important because it induces the release of growth hormone in the body, which in turn helps with fat metabolism. Ornithine is required for a properly functioning immune system and liver. It assists in ammonia detoxification and liver Rejuvenation. Ornithine helps healing and repairing skin and tissue and is found in both these body parts.. Ornithine is helpful for people recouping after surgery and athletes may benefit from this nutrient.

L-Ornithine can be changed into L-Arginine in the body and it functions similarly in growth hormone release.

L-PHENYLALANINE

Phenylalanine is an essential amino acid (building block for proteins in the body). It is essential to human health but cannot be manufactured by the body. For this reason, phenylalanine must be obtained from food. It is available in three chemical forms, including L-phenylalanine (the natural form of phenylalanine found in proteins throughout the body), D-phenylalanine (a mirror image of L-phenylalanine that is synthesized in a laboratory), and DL-phenylalanine, a combination of the previous two forms.

The body converts phenylalanine into tyrosine, another amino acid essential for making proteins, brain chemicals including dopamine and norepinephrine, and thyroid hormones. Symptoms of phenylalanine deficiency include confusion, lack of energy, depression, decreased alertness, decreased memory, and diminished appetite.

On the other hand, a rare metabolic disorder called phenylketonuria (PKU) occurs in people who are missing an enzyme that is needed to properly metabolize phenylalanine, causing high levels of phenylalanine in the body. Symptoms of PKU, which tend to appear between 3 and 6 months of age, include eczema, developmental delay, an abnormally small head, and hyperactivity. If it is not treated before 3 weeks of age, PKU can cause severe, irreversible mental retardation. In the United States, newborns are tested for PKU during the first 48 - 72 hours of life.

People with PKU must eat a phenylalanine-restricted, tyrosine-supplemented diet to have optimum brain development and growth. Rarely, over-restriction of phenylalanine in the diet can lead to deficiency of this amino acid, with the same symptoms described above.

Uses:

Chronic pain:

Although results of clinical studies have not been entirely consistent, preliminary evidence suggests that D-phenylalanine may help reduce chronic pain associated with certain health conditions, such as multiple sclerosis (MS) and fibromyalgia, by stimulating nerve pathways in the brain that control pain. Some scientists, for example, report that they have observed enhanced pain relief when D-phenylalanine is used together with prescription painkillers, including opiates. Other clinical studies have found D-phenylalanine to be no more effective than placebo in reducing pain. Further research is needed to determine the safety and effectiveness of this amino acid for pain.

Parkinson's disease:

One animal study suggests that D-phenylalanine may improve rigidity, walking disabilities, speech difficulties, and depression associated with Parkinson's disease. It is not clear whether these results translate into a possible treatment for people with this disease, however. Further studies in people are necessary before supplementation with this amino acid can be recommended for individuals with Parkinson's disease.

Vitiligo:

Clinical evidence suggests that combining L-phenylalanine (oral and topical) with UVA radiation for people with vitiligo, a condition characterized by irregular depigmentation (loss of color) or white patches of skin. L-phenylalanine may lead to some darkening or repigmentation of the whitened areas, particularly on the face. Although preliminary clinical information suggests that it is safe when used under appropriate medical guidance and supervision of a health care professional, more research is needed to assess potential side effects of this treatment approach.

Depression:
Some clinical evidence suggests that phenylalanine may be effective as part of a comprehensive therapy for depression. Individuals have reported improvement in mood when taking phenylalanine. This is thought to be due to enhanced production of brain chemicals, such as dopamine and norepinephrine. More research is needed in this area.Dietary Sources:L-phenylalanine is found in most foods that contain protein such as beef, poultry, pork, fish, milk, yogurt, eggs, cheese, soy products (including soy protein isolate, soybean flour, and tofu), and certain nuts and seeds. The artificial sweetener aspartame is also high in phenylalanine.

S-Adenosyl-L-methionine(SAMe)Synonyms:

SAM-e is an amino acid derivative that has been clinically proven to benefit brain and joint function. SAMe is a molecule produced constantly by all living cells. It is a good nutrition for the liver,can prevent alcohol, drugs and the liver-cell injury; has remarkable preventive effects on chronic active hepatitis, and other factors caused liver injury,heart disease, cancer and so on.. SAMe has been found to be as effective as pharmaceutical treatments for arthritis and major depression as well. Found in all living cells, SAM-e is also called "activated" methionine (an essential amino acid) since it is formed by the combining of ATP with methionine. SAM-e has undergone dozens of trials involving thousands of patients.

Researchers studying the beneficial effects of SAM-e have indentified the following benefits :

(3S)-5'-[(3-Amino-3-carboxylatopropyl)methylsulphonio]-5'-deoxyadenosine; SAMJoint Strenght SAM-e supports the production of healthy connective tissue through transulfuration. In this process, critical components of connective tissue, including glucosamine and the chondroitin sulfates, are sulfated by SAM-e.

Brain Metabolism:
SAM-e methylation reactions are involved in the synthesis of neurotransmitters such as L-dopa, dopamine and related hormones, epinephrine and phosphatidylcholine (a component of Lecithin).Longevity
Methylation of DNA appears to be important in the suppression of errors in DNA replication. Demethylation of DNA is considered a contributor to the aging process. Proper methylation through substances such as SAM-e positively influence longevity.

Liver
SAM-e metabolism supports the synthesis of glutathione (GSH) and glutathione-dependent enzymes (glutathione peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase), which are substances important for liver function.
Dosage Take 400mg per day on an empty stomach, or as directed by your qualified health consultant.

Taurine Powder:
Taurine is an amino acid believed to play an important role in many areas of the body including the brain and nervous system. Some researchers hold that Taurine can be a beneficial dietary supplement for persons with bipolar disorder (manic depression).

Benefits· Works as an ion and pH buffer in the heart, skeletal muscles and central nervous system.
  • Taurine is instrumental in preventing loss of potassium from heart muscle.
  • Aids in the digestion of fat, soluble vitamins, and the management of cholesterol levels.
  • Aids electrolyte balance and proper utilization of sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium.
  • Improves cell volumization.
  • Improves anabolic processes.
  • Boosts protein synthesis.
  • Maintains glucose uptake.
  • Makes muscles appear larger.
  • May help prevent cataracts.
  • Taurine works synergistically with any form of Creatine.
  • Boosts cardiac output in those suffering from congestiveheart failure or cardiomyopathy.
  • May help control epileptic seizures, uncontrollable facial twitches, and motor tics
  • .
DESCRIPTION:
Taurine is a nonprotein amino acid. It is an end product of L-cysteine metabolism and the principal free intracellular amino acid in many tissues of humans and other animal species. Taurine is present in high amounts in the brain, retina, myocardium, skeletal and smooth muscle, platelets and neutrophils. It is classified as a conditionally essential amino acid because it is necessary to be supplied in the diet of infants for normal retinal and brain development.

Research of taurine was greatly stimulated by the finding that it is an essential nutrient for cats. Taurine deficiency in cats can result in a variety of clinical abnormalities, including central retinal degeneration, dilated cardiomyopathy and platelet function abnormalities. Shortly after the discovery that dietary taurine deficiency leads to retinal degeneration in cats, it was observed that infants who were fed formulas lacking taurine had lower plasma levels of this amino acid than did infants fed human milk. Further, it was discovered that children receiving total parenteral nutrition not containing taurine had abnormal electroretinograms, as well as low plasma taurine levels. Taurine has been added to most human infant formulas since the mid-1980s.

Taurine is produced in the body from L-cysteine. The first reaction in the pathway is the formation of cysteine sulfinic acid. Cysteine sulfinic acid (CSA) is converted to hypotaurine via the enzyme CSA-decarboxylase, and taurine is formed from hypotaurine. Cats have low activity of CSA-decarboxylase. Dietary taurine mainly comes from animal food. Taurine is present in very low levels in plant foods. Taurine is found in seaweeds.

The most understood role of taurine in humans is its involvement in the formation of taurine bile acid conjugates in the liver, which are essential for micelle formation and fat absorption. Taurine is involved in the pre-and post-natal development of the central nervous system and visual system, although the details of its involvement in these processes are unclear. Taurine also has antioxidant and membrane-stabilizing activities. Much remains to be learned about the role of taurine in human physiology.

Taurine is different from most biological amino acids in a few particulars. It is a sulfonic acid rather than a carboxylic acid; it is a beta-amino acid rather than an alpha-amino acid and it does not have a chiral center. Taurine is also known as 2-aminoethane sulfonic acid. Its molecular formula is C2H7NO3 S, and its molecular weight is 215.15 daltons.

ACTIONS:
Taurine has antioxidant activity. It has putative hypocholesterolemic, hypotensive, antiatherogenic and detoxifying activities. It may also have steatorrhea-reducing activity in those with cystic fibrosis and has putative antidiabetic, inotropic and antiseizure activities.

The major antioxidant activity of taurine derives from its ability to scavenge the reactive oxygen species hypochlorite, which is generated in neutrophils during respiratory-burst activity of these cells. Taurine reacts with excess hypochlorite produced in the process of phagocytosis to form the relatively harmless N-chlorotaurine. N-chlorotaurine is then reduced to taurine and chloride. This activity may protect against collateral tissue damage that can occur from the respiratory burst of neutrophils. Taurine may also suppress peroxidation of membrane lipoproteins by other reactive oxygen species. It is thought that this effect is not due to taurine's scavenging of these reactive oxygen species, but rather to taurine's membrane-stabilizing activity, which confers greater resistance to the membrane lipoproteins against lipid peroxidation.

Taurine has been demonstrated to reduce cholesterol levels in animals, but results in humans have been contradictory. The hypocholesterolemic effect of taurine in animals is thought to be due, in large part, to the stimulation of bile acid synthesis and enhancement of cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase activity. Taurine has been found to have antiatherogenic activity in animals, but there is less evidence that it does in humans. The antiatherogenic activity of taurine in animals is thought to be due, in large part, to its hypocholesterolemic activity.

Taurine has been found to normalize blood pressure in spontaneous hypertensive rats, and there is some evidence from human studies that it also has hypotensive activity in hypertensive, but not normotensive, individuals. It is speculated that the hypotensive effect of taurine may result from the normalization of increased sympathetic activity in hypertensive individuals.

Taurine has been found to ameliorate bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis in hamsters and also to ameliorate the side effects of some nitrogen mustards. It is thought that the possible antioxidant and membrane-stabilizing activities of taurine may account for these detoxifying actions.

Some studies have shown decreased steatorrhea in cystic fibrosis patients receiving taurine. It is thought that the mechanism of this effect is taurine's stimulation of bile acid formation resulting in increased fat absorption in these individuals.

Again in animals, but not in humans, taurine has been found to have antidiabetic activity. The mechanism of this effect is unclear. It is thought that taurine may decrease insulin resistance.

Cats who are deficient in taurine develop dilated cardiomyopathy and congestive heart failure. Taurine has an inotropic effect when given to these animals. Some studies suggest that taurine has an inotropic effect in humans with congestive heart failure. The mechanism of this possible effect is unclear. It is thought that taurine may modulate the calcium current.
The mechanism of taurine's putative antiseizure activity is unknown.

PHARMACOKINETICS:

Following ingestion, taurine is absorbed from the small intestine via the beta-amino acid or taurine transport system, a sodium- and chloride-dependent carrier system that serves gamma-aminobutyric acid and beta-alanine, as well as taurine. This carrier system is located in the apical membrane of intestinal mucosa cells. Taurine is transported to the liver via the portal circulation, where much of it forms conjugates with bile acids. Taurocholate, the bile salt conjugate of taurine and cholic acid, is the principal conjugate formed via the action of the enzyme choloyl-CoA N-acyltransferase. The taurine conjugates are excreted via the biliary route. Taurine that is not conjugated in the liver is distributed via the systemic circulation to various tissues in the body. Taurine is not usually completely reabsorbed from the kidneys, and some fraction of an ingested dose of taurine is excreted in the urine.

INDICATIONS AND USAGE:

Taurine may be helpful in some with congestive heart failure and hypertension. It has demonstrated some antiatherogenic effects in both animal and human studies. There is the suggestion, mostly from animal data, that taurine might improve glucose tolerance and protect against some toxins. Some older studies suggest it might have some antiseizure activity. There is preliminary evidence that it might be helpful in some with cystic fibrosis.

RESEARCH SUMMARY:

In a study of 24 subjects with congestive heart failure, administration of 2 grams of taurine, twice a day, resulted in clinical improvement in 19 patients. Roentgenographic data helped confirm the improvement. These positive results were subsequently confirmed in a double-blind, randomized, crossover, placebo-controlled study in which taurine was added to conventional treatment for a four-week period. Compared with placebo, taurine produced significant improvement as evaluated by a number of measures, including chest films. In still another study, supplemental taurine, but not coenzyme Q10, was said to have significant benefit in patients with congestive heart failure secondary to ischemic or idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. This was a double-blind study using 3 grams of taurine daily.

Taurine has demonstrated hypotensive effects in some animal studies. In humans, it has lowered blood pressure in borderline hypertensive patients using 6 grams of taurine daily for seven days. Lipid-lowering effects have been seen in animals, but human data are few and contradictory. There is some preliminary evidence from one small study that 0.4 to 1.6 grams of taurine daily for eight days inhibited platelet aggregation in a dose-dependent manner. Supplementation with 1.5 grams of taurine daily decreased platelet aggregation in subjects with type 1 diabetes. Insulin sensitivity was significantly improved by taurine supplementation in a rat model of spontaneous type 2 diabetes. Serum cholesterol and triacylglycerol were decreased in the supplemented animals. Taurine was also effective in another animal model of insulin resistance.

Taurine has exerted some detoxifying effects in animal experiments. It helped prevent bleomycin-induced lung injury and fibrosis in mice. It also appeared to have protective effects, as measured by changes in memory and lipid peroxidation levels in the brain, in rats exposed to ozone. Additionally, it has inhibited ethanol-induced elevation of plasma acetaldehyde in other animal studies. In one of these, it prevented the development of ethanol-induced hypertension in rats.

In some older studies, taurine demonstrated some preliminary ability to suppress some epileptic seizures. Follow-up is needed.

Finally, taurine was shown to be of benefit in a study of 22 Canadian children with cystic fibrosis and documented steatorrhea. They were given taurine (30 mg/kg/day) and placebo during separate six-month periods. Severity of fat malabsorption was significantly reduced in most of the subjects, especially in those with the most severe steatorrhea. A more recent study, however, failed to note these benefits, but significant differences in the two study groups may account for this discrepancy. A second study by the Canadian group showed positive effects of taurine on fat absorption in cystic fibrosis patients. Again, those with the greatest malabsorption at baseline seemed to benefit the most.

CONTRAINDICATIONS:

Taurine is contraindicated in those hypersensitive to any component of a taurine-containing nutritional supplement.

PRECAUTIONS:

Pregnant women and nursing mothers should avoid taurine supplements unless recommended by their physicians. Those with congestive heart failure should only use taurine under medical supervision.

ADVERSE REACTIONS:

No reports of adverse reactions.

DRUGS:
In animal studies, taurine was found to ameliorate the pulmonary side effects (pulmonary fibrosis) of bleomycin.

DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION:
Doses are variable and range from 500 mg to 3 grams daily.As always, we strongly advise you do your own research and more importantly consult your own medical professional before commencing any use of this or any other dietary supplement .This statement has not been evaluated by the FDA. This is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

What can tryptophan do for you?

· What events can indicate a need for more tryptophan?· Preventing Niacin DeficiencyTryptophan has two important functions. First, a small amount of the tryptophan we get in our diet (about 3%) is converted into niacin (vitamin B3) by the liver. This conversion can help prevent the symptoms associated with niacin deficiency when dietary intake of this vitamin is low. Raising Serotonin LevelsSecond, tryptophan serves as a precursor for serotonin, a neurotransmitter that helps the body regulate appetite, sleep patterns, and mood. Because of its ability to raise serotonin levels, tryptophan has been used therapeutically in the treatment of a variety of conditions, most notably insomnia, depression, and anxiety. Deficiency Symptoms.

As an essential amino acid, dietary deficiency of tryptophan may cause the symptoms characteristic of protein deficiency, which include weight loss and impaired growth in infants and children.

When accompanied by dietary niacin deficiency, lack of tryptophan in the diet may also cause pellagra, the classic niacin deficiency disease that is characterized by the "4 Ds" - dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia, and death. This condition is very rare in the United States, however, and cannot occur simply because of a tryptophan deficiency.

Dietary deficiency of tryptophan may lead to low levels of serotonin. Low serotonin levels are associated with depression, anxiety, irritability, impatience, impulsiveness, inability to concentrate, weight gain, overeating, carbohydrate cravings, poor dream recall, and insomnia. Toxicity Symptoms.

High dietary intake of tryptophan from food sources is not known to cause any symptoms of toxicity. In addition, tryptophan has been given therapeutically, as a prescription medicine or dietary supplement, in doses exceeding five grams per day with no report of adverse effects.

However, in 1989, the use of dietary supplements containing tryptophan was blamed for the development of a serious condition called eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome (EMS), which caused severe muscle and joint pain, high fever, weakness, swelling of the arms and legs, and shortness of breath in more than a thousand people. In addition, more than 30 deaths were attributed to EMS caused by tryptophan supplements.

However, in 1989, the use of dietary supplements containing tryptophan was blamed for the development of a serious condition called eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome (EMS), which caused severe muscle and joint pain, high fever, weakness, swelling of the arms and legs, and shortness of breath in more than a thousand people. In addition, more than 30 deaths were attributed to EMS caused by tryptophan supplements.

Many experts believe that the EMS was caused by a contaminant that was found in one batch of tryptophan sold by one manufacturer and occurred in only a small number of susceptible individuals. However, the United States Food and Drug Administration, the agency responsible for overseeing the dietary supplement industry, remained convinced that high doses of tryptophan were categorically unsafe. Since 1989, tryptophan has not been available as a dietary supplement in the United States.

To date, a Tolerable Upper Intake Level (TUL) for tryptophan has not yet been established by the Institute of Medicine at the National Academy of Sciences. Factors that Affect Function.

Vitamin B6 is necessary for the conversion of tryptophan to both niacin and serotonin. Consequently, a dietary deficiency of vitamin B6 may result in low serotonin levels and/or impaired conversion of tryptophan to niacin.

In addition, several dietary, lifestyle, and health factors reduce the conversion of tryptophan to serotonin, including cigarette smoking, high sugar intake, alcohol abuse, excessive consumption of protein, hypoglycemia and diabetes. Drug-Nutrient Interactions.

People taking the anti-depressant medications known as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) (including Prozac, Paxil, and Zoloft) should consult a physician before taking any other supplement or medication that also increases the amount of, or the effect of, serotonin, in the body. Nutrient Interactions.

Vitamin B6, vitamin C, folic acid and magnesium are necessary for the metabolization of tryptophan. In addition, tyrosine and phenylalanine compete with tryptophan for absorption.

Because of this, some healthcare practitioners believe that food sources of tryptophan do not cause a significant enough increase in blood levels of tryptophan to produce therapeutic results, and that tryptophan must, therefore, be taken as a supplement to increase its blood levels. Form in Dietary Supplements.

Until 1989, tryptophan supplementation was standard practice in many countries around the world - including the United States - to treat insomnia, depression, and anxiety.

In the summer and fall of 1989, hundreds of people taking tryptophan supplements in the U.S. began to report the development of serious side effects including muscle and joint pain, high fever, weakness, swelling of the arms and legs, and shortness of breath, a constellation of symptoms that later became known as eosiniphilia-myalgia syndrome (EMS).

Upon investigation, it was discovered that nearly all of the cases of EMS could be traced back to a contaminant found in one batch of tryptophan produced by a Japanese manufacturer called Showa Denko K.K.

While all manufacturers of supplemental tryptophan synthesized this amino acid through a fementation process using bacteria, several months before the outbreak of EMS, Showa Denko K.K. had altered its process to make it more efficient and was apparently unaware that a toxic contaminant was being produced.

The United States Food and Drug Administration took immediate steps to limit the availability of tryptophan, and since 1989 this amino acid has not been sold as a dietary supplement. Tryptophan is still available, however, for use in the manufacture of infant formulas and entereral and parenteral (intravenous) nutritional supplements prescribed by physicians.

A few years ago, a new tryptophan-like supplement emerged in the U.S. marketplace. This supplement is called 5-hydroxytryptophan or 5-HTP. 5-HTP has been used in much the same way as tryptophan for the treatment of depression and insomnia, and for weight loss.

The reason is simple: the body ordinarily takes tryptophan and converts it into 5-HTP, and then takes the 5-HTP and converts it into serotonin. By taking 5-HTP, a person is taking a compound that is actually one step closer to serotonin than tryptophan.

DOSAGE:
In its most recent 2005 public health recommendations for amino acids (published as the Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids (Macronutrients), National Academies Press, 2005), the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) established a general principle for tryptophan intake. The NAS recommended that all individuals 1 year of age or greater consume 7 milligrams of tryptophan for every 1 gram of food protein. Here is how that recommendation would look for each age and gender group, assuming RDA-level protein intake for each group:
  • Children 1-3 years: 91 mg of tryptophan
  • Children 4-8 years: 133 mg of tryptophan
  • Males 9-13 years: 238 mg of tryptophan
  • Males 14-18 years: 364 mg of tryptophan
  • Males 19 years and older: 392 mg of tryptophan
  • Females 9-13 years: 238 mg of tryptophan
Females 14 years and older:
322 mg of tryptophan As always, we strongly advise you do your own research and more importantly consult your own medical professional before commencing any use of this or any other dietary supplement .This statement has not been evaluated by the FDA. This is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.
  • Depression
  • Anxiety
  • Irritability
  • Impatience
  • Impulsiveness
  • Inability to concentrate
  • Weight gain or unexplained weight loss
  • Slow growth in children
  • Overeating and/or carbohydrate cravings
  • Poor dream recall
  • Insomnia
What is tryptophan?Tryptophan is one of the 10 essential amino acids that the body uses to synthesize the proteins it needs. It's well-known for its role in the production of nervous system messengers, especially those related to relaxation, restfulness, and sleep. What is the function of tryptophan?Help regulate your appetite · Help you sleep better · Elevate your mood.

TRYPTOPHAN:


What can tryptophan do for you?Help regulate your appetite Help you sleep better Elevate your mood What events can indicate a need for more tryptophan?Depression Anxiety Irritability Impatience Impulsiveness Inability to concentrate Weight gain or unexplained weight loss Slow growth in children Overeating and/or carbohydrate cravings Poor dream recall Insomnia.

What is tryptophan?
Tryptophan is one of the 10 essential amino acids that the body uses to synthesize the proteins it needs. It's well-known for its role in the production of nervous system messengers, especially those related to relaxation, restfulness, and sleep.

What is the function of tryptophan?Preventing Niacin Deficiency?
Tryptophan has two important functions. First, a small amount of the tryptophan we get in our diet (about 3%) is converted into niacin (vitamin B3) by the liver. This conversion can help prevent the symptoms associated with niacin deficiency when dietary intake of this vitamin is low. Raising Serotonin Levels.

Second, tryptophan serves as a precursor for serotonin, a neurotransmitter that helps the body regulate appetite, sleep patterns, and mood. Because of its ability to raise serotonin levels, tryptophan has been used therapeutically in the treatment of a variety of conditions, most notably insomnia, depression, and anxiety.

Deficiency Symptoms

As an essential amino acid, dietary deficiency of tryptophan may cause the symptoms characteristic of protein deficiency, which include weight loss and impaired growth in infants and children.

When accompanied by dietary niacin deficiency, lack of tryptophan in the diet may also cause pellagra, the classic niacin deficiency disease that is characterized by the "4 Ds" - dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia, and death. This condition is very rare in the United States, however, and cannot occur simply because of a tryptophan deficiency.

Dietary deficiency of tryptophan may lead to low levels of serotonin. Low serotonin levels are associated with depression, anxiety, irritability, impatience, impulsiveness, inability to concentrate, weight gain, overeating, carbohydrate cravings, poor dream recall, and insomnia.

Toxicity Symptoms

High dietary intake of tryptophan from food sources is not known to cause any symptoms of toxicity. In addition, tryptophan has been given therapeutically, as a prescription medicine or dietary supplement, in doses exceeding five grams per day with no report of adverse effects.

However, in 1989, the use of dietary supplements containing tryptophan was blamed for the development of a serious condition called eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome (EMS), which caused severe muscle and joint pain, high fever, weakness, swelling of the arms and legs, and shortness of breath in more than a thousand people. In addition, more than 30 deaths were attributed to EMS caused by tryptophan supplements.

Many experts believe that the EMS was caused by a contaminant that was found in one batch of tryptophan sold by one manufacturer and occurred in only a small number of susceptible individuals. However, the United States Food and Drug Administration, the agency responsible for overseeing the dietary supplement industry, remained convinced that high doses of tryptophan were categorically unsafe. Since 1989, tryptophan has not been available as a dietary supplement in the United States.

To date, a Tolerable Upper Intake Level (TUL) for tryptophan has not yet been established by the Institute of Medicine at the National Academy of Sciences.

Factors that Affect Function

Vitamin B6 is necessary for the conversion of tryptophan to both niacin and serotonin. Consequently, a dietary deficiency of vitamin B6 may result in low serotonin levels and/or impaired conversion of tryptophan to niacin.

In addition, several dietary, lifestyle, and health factors reduce the conversion of tryptophan to serotonin, including cigarette smoking, high sugar intake, alcohol abuse, excessive consumption of protein, hypoglycemia and diabetes.

Drug-Nutrient Interactions

People taking the anti-depressant medications known as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) (including Prozac, Paxil, and Zoloft) should consult a physician before taking any other supplement or medication that also increases the amount of, or the effect of, serotonin, in the body.

Nutrient Interactions

Vitamin B6, vitamin C, folic acid and magnesium are necessary for the metabolization of tryptophan. In addition, tyrosine and phenylalanine compete with tryptophan for absorption.

Because of this, some healthcare practitioners believe that food sources of tryptophan do not cause a significant enough increase in blood levels of tryptophan to produce therapeutic results, and that tryptophan must, therefore, be taken as a supplement to increase its blood levels.

Form in Dietary Supplements

Until 1989, tryptophan supplementation was standard practice in many countries around the world - including the United States - to treat insomnia, depression, and anxiety.

In the summer and fall of 1989, hundreds of people taking tryptophan supplements in the U.S. began to report the development of serious side effects including muscle and joint pain, high fever, weakness, swelling of the arms and legs, and shortness of breath, a constellation of symptoms that later became known as eosiniphilia-myalgia syndrome (EMS).

Upon investigation, it was discovered that nearly all of the cases of EMS could be traced back to a contaminant found in one batch of tryptophan produced by a Japanese manufacturer called Showa Denko K.K.

While all manufacturers of supplemental tryptophan synthesized this amino acid through a fementation process using bacteria, several months before the outbreak of EMS, Showa Denko K.K. had altered its process to make it more efficient and was apparently unaware that a toxic contaminant was being produced.

The United States Food and Drug Administration took immediate steps to limit the availability of tryptophan, and since 1989 this amino acid has not been sold as a dietary supplement. Tryptophan is still available, however, for use in the manufacture of infant formulas and entereral and parenteral (intravenous) nutritional supplements prescribed by physicians.

A few years ago, a new tryptophan-like supplement emerged in the U.S. marketplace. This supplement is called 5-hydroxytryptophan or 5-HTP. 5-HTP has been used in much the same way as tryptophan for the treatment of depression and insomnia, and for weight loss.

The reason is simple: the body ordinarily takes tryptophan and converts it into 5-HTP, and then takes the 5-HTP and converts it into serotonin. By taking 5-HTP, a person is taking a compound that is actually one step closer to serotonin than tryptophan.

DOSAGE:

Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids (Macronutrients), National Academies Press, 2005), the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) established a general principle for tryptophan intake. The NAS recommended that all individuals 1 year of age or greater consume 7 milligrams of tryptophan for every 1 gram of food protein. Here is how that recommendation would look for each age and gender group, assuming RDA-level protein intake for each group: Children 1-3 years: 91 mg of tryptophan Children 4-8 years: 133 mg of tryptophan Males 9-13 years: 238 mg of tryptophan Males 14-18 years: 364 mg of tryptophan Males 19 years and older: 392 mg of tryptophan Females 9-13 years: 238 mg of tryptophan Females 14 years and older: 322 mg of tryptophan In its most recent 2005 public health recommendations for amino acids.

As always, we strongly advise you do your own research and more importantly consult your own medical professional before commencing any use of this or any other dietary supplement .This statement has not been evaluated by the FDA. This is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.


Tyrosine amino acid

Tyrosine was first isolated from casein in 1849 and is abundant in insulin as well as the enzyme papain and can be synthesized from the amino acid phenylalanine in the body.It is a precursor of the neurotransmitters epinephrine, norepinephrine and dopamine, all of them extremely important in the brain and transmits nerve impulses and prevents depression. Dopamine is also vital to mental function and seems to play a role in sex driveTyrosine required forThe action of this amino acid in brain functions is clear with its link to dopamine as well as norepinephrine, but it is also helpful in suppressing the appetite and reducing body fat, production of skin and hair pigment, the proper functioning of the thyroid as well as the pituitary and adrenal gland.

It is used for stress reduction and may be beneficial in narcolepsy, fatigue, anxiety, depression, allergies, headaches as well as drug withdrawal. In a study, using soldiers, tyrosine proved effective in alleviating stress and keeping them more alert.Deficiency of nutrientTyrosine, a parent amino acid for skin, hair, and eye pigments and is involved in syndromes, known generally as oculocutaneous albinism, that are characterized by the failure to form melanin pigments, resulting in partial or complete albinism.

It is also the precursor amino acid for the thyroid gland hormone thyroxin, and a defect in this may result in hypothyroidism - an enlargement of the thyroid gland (goiter), severe growth failure, and retardation of central nervous system development.

A deficiency may also have symptoms of low blood pressure, low body temperature (including cold hands and feet) and "restless leg syndrome".DosageThe dosage listed is the Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA), but be aware that this dosage is the minimum that you require per day, to ward off serious deficiency of this particular nutrient. In the therapeutic use of this nutrient, the dosage is usually increased considerably, but the toxicity level must be kept in mind.

Dosage levels are not confirmed, but some experiments have been performed with people taking up to 5 - 7 grams per day, with no confirmed toxic levels, but people taking MAO inhibitors, who suffer from high blood pressure and have problems with skin cancer should not take supplementation of L-tyrosine, and should aim to limit their intake of food sources high in this nutrient. Best used withIf taking a tyrosine supplement it is best to take it at bedtime, or with a high carbohydrate meal to prevent competition of absorption with other amino acids. Folic acid, copper and vitamin B6 is a good combination to have with this nutrient to maximize absorption and effectiveness.Other interesting pointsTyrosine and tryptophan have with been used with some success in the treatment of cocaine abuse and in another study it was combined with the antidepressant Imipramine to treat chronic cocaine abuse where it was reported that the combination blocked the cocaine high and prevented the severe depression that accompanies withdrawal.Food sources of tyrosineMeat, dairy, eggs as well as almonds, avocados and bananas are good sources of this nutrient.As always, we strongly advise you do your own research and more importantly consult your own medical professional before commencing any use of this or any other dietary supplement .This statement has not been evaluated by the FDA. This is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

L-Valine

L-valine is a branched-chain essential amino acid (BCAA) that has stimulant activity. It promotes muscle growth and tissue repair. It is a precursor in the penicillin biosynthetic pathway. Valine is one of three branched-chain amino acids (the others are leucine and isoleucine) that enhance energy, increase endurance, and aid in muscle tissue recovery and repair. This group also lowers elevated blood sugar levels and increases growth hormone production. Supplemental valine should always be combined with isoleucine and leucine at a respective milligram ratio of 2:1:2. It is an essential amino acid found in proteins; important for optimal growth in infants and for growth in children and nitrogen balance in adults. The lack of L-valine may influence the growth of body, cause neuropathic obstacle, anaemia. It has wide applications in the field of pharmaceutical and food industry.

Zinc Monomethionine

Chelated Zinc and Methionine More than 70% of women do not obtain the minimum daily requirement of zinc from their diets. Zinc is an enzyme co-factor that assists the body in absorbing enzymes, such as Vitalzym. Additionally, it plays an important role in hormone production and balance, and is crucial to the manufacture and repair of DNA. Zinc's role in strengthening a women's immune system is rapidly being recognized as critical.

Zinc and Women’s Hormonal BalanceZinc helps prevent hormonal imbalance and fibrosis conditions because it plays an important role in hormone production and balance. Zinc helps to increase progesterone levels and lower estrogen. The American Zinc Association states that as a woman ages, she may undergo dietary or hormonal changes which could affect her zinc status. For example, excess estrogen can lower serum zinc levels and women who are estrogen dominant or using estrogen replacement therapy should check to be sure their zinc intake is adequate.

According to the America Zinc Association, zinc may help in the treatment of pre-menstrual syndrome (PMS), which affects 50 percent of all menstruating women. Recent studies cannot say for sure, but there is growing evidence that a deficiency of progesterone underlies PMS, and trace amounts of zinc regulate the secretion of hormones, including progesterone.

Early research at Baylor College of Medicine in Houston found significantly lower levels of zinc among women with PMS during the last 13 days of the menstrual cycle. This reduction could lead to a decrease in secretions of progesterone and endorphins, the natural painkillers our bodies produce. The research is preliminary and if zinc deficiency does play a role, it might only affect a subgroup; nevertheless, studies continue to confirm zinc's importance to the regulation of hormones. Zinc also governs the contractibility of muscles, including uterine muscle, and plays a role in menstrual regulation.

Zinc and Men’s Hormonal BalanceCommonly used to manage colds, zinc is one of the most important supplements for men’s health. And is most concentrated in the prostate gland.1 A key mineral in male sexual function and a protector nutrient against prostate cancer.2,3.

For the aging male population, zinc supplementation can be indicated for several reasons. The mineral zinc, which inhibits the activity of the 5-alpha reductase enzyme that irreversibly converts testosterone to dihydrotestosterone, may be helpful in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia.3 Zinc also has a critical role in male sexual function and is necessary for all aspects of male reproduction, including hormone metabolism and sperm formation and motility.

In men, zinc deficiency syndromes can present in different ways. Low testosterone and low sperm counts may be signs of a zinc deficiency.3 Men with excessive estrogen levels despite normal testosterone levels may also lack the mineral.4 Increased estrogen levels result from elevated amounts of the aromatase enzyme which converts testosterone to estrogen.

Symptoms of Zinc Deficiency

  • Acne
  • Anorexia
  • Delayed wound healing
  • Depression
  • Difficulty hearing
  • Fatigue
  • Frequent infections
  • Impaired sense of taste or smell
  • Joint pain
  • Light sensitivity
  • Night Blindness
  • Problems with hair, skin, or nails
  • Weak sexual function or sterility
Vital During Pregnancy & BreastfeedingBecause zinc is used to generate cells, it is essential for the developing fetus where cells are rapidly dividing. Adequate zinc contributes to growth, lessens premature births and other complications, and improves neonatal survival.

Zinc is also important to mothers who breastfeed. Studies in The Lancet showed that by the sixth month of lactation even a well-nourished mother may provide less zinc than is necessary for her infant. Zinc causes babies to thrive. Breastfed babies who received zinc supplements grew significantly in length and weight over those given a placebo. Zinc and Aging A Wayne State study found that nearly 30 percent of a large group of healthy, affluent women over 50 were zinc deficient. It's believed that zinc deficiency is common in older women, partly because they eat less, which makes getting enough zinc difficult.

Zinc's role in strengthening a women's immune system is rapidly being recognized as critical. Without enough zinc, the body can't produce thymulin, a substance which helps make mature T-cells, some of the body's strongest defenders against infections and disease. The immune system weakens with age, and zinc deficiency may be partly to blame.

Zinc also plays a role in maintaining vision. In particular, it's needed for night vision and it may also slow the progression of macular degeneration, a disorder of the retina that is the leading cause of severe loss of vision in older women.

Genetic ExpressionGroundbreaking research in zinc is its role in genetic transcription and replication. The discovery of "zinc fingers," which activate hundreds of genes, promises understanding of how growth promoters, like steroids, work and may help treat tumors and viral diseases. Zinc finger proteins bind to DNA by wrapping around small sections of DNA molecules, activating a gene. Research into zinc finger proteins has already explained some genetic defects.

Zinc and VitalzymZinc is an enzyme co-factor that assists the body in absorbing enzymes, such as those found in Vitalzym, to help them work as efficiently as possible in the body.

If you are using Vitalzym for a fibrosis condition that is related to estrogen dominance, or any condition, you may not be utilizing the enzymes as well as possible because you may have low levels of zinc.

Between 15 and 50 mg a day is suggested to optimize enzyme absorption, the immune system, and hormonal balance.

Supplement FactsServing Size: Zinc monomethionine is a 1:1 chelated complex of the antioxidants zinc and methionine. Human and animal studies have demonstrated that zinc monomethionine is more effective than other zinc supplements tested. Zinc monomethionine has been shown to stimulate new cell growth, enhance immunity, nourish skin structures, support male sexual function, and fight free radical damage.

Other ingredients: Microcrystalline cellulose and hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose (Vcap). Suggested Use: As a dietary supplement, take daily with meals or as directed 25 mg by a health care professional.

Possible Zinc Side EffectsLong-term supplementation at doses above 50 mg/day can induce a copper deficiency and has been shown to cause an increase in cholesterol and lower HDL levels.1 Supplementing copper with the zinc should eliminate this problem.2If your multi-vitamin/mineral formula contains copper and zinc, please factor the amount into your daily intake. For those who live in areas where there are high copper levels in water, there may not be a need to supplement with copper.

People with estrogen dominance may not need to add copper into their daily regimen, due to the fact that copper is generally high when this condition is present. Additionally, high levels of copper can be reduced by taking zinc alone.

Individuals who are not sure if they should take copper while supplementing with zinc may want to have their copper levels tested prior to adding it to their diet.

Doses above 150 mg/day can be problematic and cause diarrhea, dizziness, drowsiness, vomiting, muscle in-coordination, and lethargy .25 mg per day.

ZMA

ZMA is a synergistic combination of zinc, magnesium and vitamin B6, specifically designed to enhance muscle strength, endurance, and recovery from exercise. Taken before bedtime, ZMA promotes deeper, more restful sleep, which is when maximum healing, and muscle growth takes place. ZMA consists of a unique covalently-bound complex of zinc, magnesium and aspartic acid, which enables the magnesium and zinc to reach the bloodstream at the same time so that the desired synergistic effect can be obtained.

ZMA Promotes Restful, Restorative Sleep
ZMA has been developed to improve sleep efficiency. ZMA is reported to effectively enhance sleep and is recommended to be taken 30-60 minutes before bedtime. Healing, anabolic hormone production and muscle growth are maximized during sleep, so quality sleep is extremely important to all of us.

Clinically Proven Effectiveness for Strength Training
ZMA has been used by dozens of world-class Olympic and professional athletes and bodybuilders, including members of the Super Bowl Champion Denver Broncos and Miami Dolphins football teams. It is also the only non-steroidal, all-natural zinc and magnesium supplement clinically-proven to increase insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) and strength training in athletes. In a recent double-blind, placebo-controlled study conducted with NCAA college football players, researchers at Western Washington University found that eight weeks of nightly supplementation with ZMA.

  • Increased plasma zinc levels 29.1%, while placebo levels decreased 4.4% (a 33.5% difference)
  • Increased plasma magnesium levels 6.2%, while placebo levels decreased 9.2% (a 15.4% difference)
  • Increased total testosterone levels 32.4%, while placebo levels decreased 10.5% (a 42.9% difference)
  • Increased free testosterone levels 33.5%, while placebo levels decreased 10.2% (a 43.7% difference)
  • Increased IGF-1 levels 3.6%, while placebo levels decreased 21.5% (a 25.1% difference)
  • Increased muscle strength 11.6%, while placebo strength increased only 4.6% (a 2.5-fold difference)
Zinc for Cellular Growth and Tissue Health
Zinc is an anabolic mineral required for the production of growth hormone and testosterone, which promote healing and growth. In addition, zinc helps improve energy by minimizing the build-up of lactic acid in muscle tissue. Zinc is also necessary for the maintenance of a healthy immune system.

Magnesium for Energy Production and Neuromuscular Function

Magnesium aids in the transport of oxygen to muscle tissue, which promotes strength, endurance and relaxation. Magnesium also activates enzymes necessary for the metabolism of carbohydrates and amino acids.

ZMA for Low Energy and Muscle Health
Unfortunately, zinc and magnesium deficiencies are common, and physical activity can increase the need for these important minerals. Numerous studies show that exercise and stress result in significant losses of zinc and magnesium. According to USDA researchers, when exercise-enhanced mineral losses are coupled with inadequate dietary intakes, athletes are at special risk to mineral deficiencies.

ZMA was designed to optimize the absorption and availability of zinc and magnesium during peak times of muscle growth. Both the zinc l-monomethionine and zinc/magnesium aspartate in ZMA are unique and highly bioavailable forms of these minerals. The zinc l-monomethionine is absorbed in the front part of the small intestine at the mineral receptor sites, while the zinc/magnesium aspartate is absorbed in the back of the small intestine via an active transport mechanism. In addition, the zinc/magnesium aspartate in ZMA consists of a unique covalently-bound complex of zinc, magnesium and aspartic acid, which enables the magnesium and zinc to reach the bloodstream at the same time so that the desired synergistic effect can be obtained. The addition of vitamin B6 further increases the absorption and utilization of both zinc and magnesium.

ZMA for Healthy IGF-1 Levels:
Insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) is an anabolic hormone that decreases as we age. Growth hormones are essential substances produced in the body that help maintain muscle tissue, and support proper body function. Most growth hormones are secreted during the deep sleep cycle. It is then necessary reach this restorative sleep phase for good health. ZMA naturally promotes the deep sleep cycle, where healthy levels of IGF-1 are produced. ZMA should be taken before bed on an empty stomach (2 hours after eating your last meal and at least 30 minutes prior to any other supplements). The product should not be taken with calcium (cheese,milk,etc.), the reason being that calcium blocks the absorption of zinc.RDA for men .5 to 1 gm per day for women .3 to .75 gm per day.