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Acetyl L Carnitine

One of the key uses of Acetyl l Carnitine supplement is for fatty acid oxidation helping users burn unwanted body fat. Fatty acids are one the key energy sources the body uses and oxidation is the process by which they're broken down to create energy. The fatty acids cannot penetrate the inner mitochondria membrane (where they are burned for energy), and the key role for L-Carnitine is to transport fatty acids across the mitochondria membrane to allow for oxidation of the fats.

Acetyl l Carnitine BENEFITS of according to published studies.

  • Acetyl l carnitine may improve mental fatigue in those who suffer from chronic fatigue syndrome.Patients with multiple sclerosis are helped by acetyl l carnitine, which reduces their fatigue.
  • In aging rats, chronic administration of acetyl l carnitine increases cholinergic synaptic transmission and consequently enhances learning capacity. The memory of aging rats is rejuvenated by giving them a combination of acetyl l carnitine and lipoic acid.
  • Acetyl l carnitine is a promising nutrient for those with diabetic neuropathy. >This nutrient could be helpful in chemotherapy induced peripheral neuropathy.
  • May reduce alcohol-induced cellular damage to organs.
  • May be helpful in geriatric patients with mild depression.
  • Acetyl l carnitine improves the function of mitochondria, the organelles within cells that are involved in energy production.
  • May be effective in the therapy of acute and early chronic Peyronie's disease.
  • May help individuals with degenerative cerebellar ataxia.
  • Acetyl l carnitine is suitable for clinical use in the reduction of neuronal death after peripheral nerve trauma.
  • May be helpful in those with Alzheimer's disease. Acetyl l carnitine protects against amyloid-beta neurotoxicity.As always, we strongly advise you do your own research and more importantly consult your own medical professional before commencing any use of this or any other dietary supplement .This statement has not been evaluated by the FDA. This is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease>L Carnitine is derived from the lysine and methionine amino acids. It is mainly synthesized in the liver and the kidneys, and must be transported for use to other tissues in the body. It is found in highest concentration in tissues that use fatty acids as the main dietary fuel, such as the skeletal and cardiac muscles.

Alpha Lipoic Acid (ALA)

Alpha Lipoic Acid serves as a coenzyme in the energy production process in the cells which can provide quick bursts of energy. Alpha Lipoic Acid is unique in that it is both water and fat soluble which allows it to enter all parts of the cell to neutralize free radicals. Alpha Lipoic Acid contributes to invigorating mental and physical energy and a reduction in muscle fatigue. Dr. Lester Packer, a leading researcher in the area of antioxidants and a professor of molecular and cell biology at the University of California at Berkeley says "Alpha-Lipoic acid could have far-reaching consequences in the search for prevention and therapy of chronic degenerative diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease" .... "and because it’s the only antioxidant that can easily get into the brain, it could be useful in preventing damage from a stroke".

Common uses for supplemental alpha Lipoic Acid:
Suggested dosage for R-Alpha Lipoic Acid is 100 mg two to three times daily. · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · May be useful in relieving syptoms of stomatopyrosis, or Burning Mouth Syndrome (BMS).Important for regulating aspects of the immune system, in particular immune cells called T-lymphocytes. Because both alpha lipoic acid and dihydrolipoic acid are antioxidants, their combined actions give them greater antioxidant potency than any natural antioxidant now known. Easily absorbed when taken orally and once inside cells is quickly converted to its most potent form, dihydrolipoic acid. Not only does it act as an antioxidant itself, it also stimulates production of glutathione (an antioxidant produced by the body), giving cells a double dose of antioxidant. Prevents tissue damage and death after a heart attack. Significantly increase survival in rats that have suffered a stroke if given before the stroke occurs. Recycles and enhances the effects of other antioxidants such as Vitamin E and Vitamin C. Inhibits Glycation which is responsible for accelerated tissue damage. Chelates (grabs) heavy metals and binds them reducing these oxidants from blood system. May help improve memory. May help reduce LDL (bad) blood cholesterol. Neutralizes free radicals. Unlike Vitamin C which is water soluble and Vitamin E which is fat soluble, alpha Lipoic Acid is both water and fat soluble which allows it to enter all parts of the cell to neutralize free radicals. Important for the production of energy inside the cell by utilizing sugar to produce energy contributing to mental and physical stamina. May help prevent the onset of type 2 diabetes. May play a role in controlling blood sugar. Currently used in Europe to treat peripheral nerve degeneration (neuropathy) resulting from diabetes.


The amino acid arginine is a powerful immune enhancer. It plays a role in such diverse body functions as circulation and sexual function. Ornithine has many of the same properties. Teaming these two powerhouses makes a safe, natural and effective supplement for immune system enhancement.

Arginine is synthesized in the liver and kidneys and is not normally considered to be an essential amino acid. However, in times of heightened catabolism and need--such as during extreme stress, trauma, injury, or infection--it becomes essential to the maintenance of optimal health.

Arginine plays a key role in the urea cycle, the metabolic pathway by which urea is created. Urea is used to dispose of excess nitrogen, which can be toxic if the body cannot excrete it fast enough. Arginine is converted to ornithine, which is then used to produce urea in the kidneys. A deficiency in arginine can impair the urea cycle, resulting in a build-up of urea precursors, and increased levels of ammonia in the plasma. In laboratory animals, arginine deficiency has been shown to result in renal complications; in humans, one characteristic of renal (kidney) failure is arginine deficiency. Arginine is also a precursor for nitric oxide, which plays an important role in immune function, neurotransmission, and platelet aggregation and adhesion.

Ornithine plays a key role in the urea cycle, and alpha-ketoglutarate plays a key role in another metabolic pathway--the Krebs cycle. Ornithine also stimulates the synthesis of RNA, DNA, and protein.

Ornithine has been demonstrated to be quite effective in promoting muscle repair and maintaining nitrogen balance after stresses such as trauma or surgery. Nitrogen balance is the ratio of nitrogen ingested (in the form of protein and amino acids) versus nitrogen excreted. In a normal, healthy adult, nitrogen balance should be zero. A negative nitrogen balance occurs when protein is being synthesized. This is a common result of surgery, injury, extreme stress, or excessive exercise. Extensive research in both laboratory animals and in humans indicates that supplementation with Ornithine can alleviate these negative effects.

Recommended dosage:
2gms to 5 gms per day on an empty stomach.

Use only as directed. Not for use by diabetics, borderline diabetics, pregnant or lactating women, cancer patients or persons who have had ocular or brain herpes. High dietary levels of arginine and/or ornithine may cause reactivation of latent herpes viruses in a few susceptible individuals. If this occurs, discontinue use. Persons with phenylketonuria (PKU) should not take this product.

L Arginine:
  • As always, we strongly advise you do your own research and more importantly consult your own medical professional before commencing any use of this or any other dietary supplement .This statement has not been evaluated by the FDA. This is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any diseaseResearch studies document that nitric oxide from Arginine has a positive effect increasing muscle mass.
  • When test animals were given extra Arginine the animals sarcomeres, or muscle fibres, increase in diameter.
  • In addition to Nitric Oxide production increased muscle growth was observed.
  • Muscle fibre growth occurred at an accelerated rate.
  • L-Arginine is in most natural Sexual performance FormulasThere is abundant evidence that the endothelium plays a crucial role in the maintenance of vascular tone and structure. One of the major endothelium-derived vasoactive mediators is nitric oxide (NO), an endogenous messenger molecule formed in healthy vascular endothelium from the amino acid precursor L-arginine. Endothelial dysfunction is caused by various cardiovascular risk factors, metabolic diseases, and systemic or local inflammation. One mechanism that explains the occurrence of endothelial dysfunction is the presence of elevated blood levels of asymmetric dimethyl arginine (ADMA) an L-arginine analogue that inhibits NO formation and thereby can impair vascular function. Supplementation with L-arginine has been shown to restore vascular function and to improve the clinical symptoms of various diseases associated with vascular dysfunction.
  • Recently, dietary supplements containing Arginine have become popular due to Arginine's nitric oxide producing ability, its ability to scavenge free radicals, as well as its ability to signal muscle cells, support healthy cholesterol, and enhance fat metabolism. Arginine helps regulate salt levels in the body.
  • For this reason it should be of interest to competing bodybuilders, as retaining water under the skin can make one looks smooth, bloated and washed out. The nitrogen retaining abilities of Arginine are well-known within the bodybuilding and scientific communities. Arginine is also believed to be crucial for muscle growth due to its vasodilation abilities, as well as its ability to participate in protein synthesis.
  • Because Arginine is a precursor of nitric oxide [which is responsible for vasodilation it is often used to enhance the female sexual experience and for supporting healthy male sexual function.Arginine is necessary for the execution of many physiological processes. These physiological processes include the removal of toxic waste products from the body, and immune system defences.
  • Arginine increases muscle protein synthesis. L Arginine is an Essential amino acid that the body cannot make naturally. There is abundant evidence that the endothelium plays a crucial role in the maintenance of vascular tone and structure. One of the major endothelium-derived vasoactive mediators is nitric oxide (NO), an endogenous messenger molecule formed in healthy vascular endothelium from the amino acid precursor L-arginine. Endothelial dysfunction is caused by various cardiovascular risk factors, metabolic diseases, and systemic or local inflammation. One mechanism that explains the occurrence of endothelial dysfunction is the presence of elevated blood levels of asymmetric dimethyl arginine (ADMA) an L-arginine analogue that inhibits NO formation and thereby can impair vascular function. Supplementation with L-arginine has been shown to restore vascular function and to improve the clinical symptoms of various diseases associated with vascular dysfunction.L-Arginine BENEFITS of according to published studies.

L – arginine alpha ketoglutamate bitatrate

It goes without saying that we don't produce "flavor of the month" supplements.. AAKG is no exception and stands atop an exciting new class of extremely powerful, drug-free Nitric Oxide (NO) enhancers. Potent, Arginine Alpha-Ketoglutarate increase strength, stamina, and vigor and speed your muscle growth and recovery. Nitric Oxide & the power of hemodilationNitric Oxide is the key molecule used by your body to transport oxygen, increase blood flow and deliver nutrients to skeletal muscle. This process is called "hemodilation". When hemodilation is accelerated, and best of all SUSTAINED as Nitro AKG does, you'll start to see some amazing things happen to your body. The positive changes begin in as little as one week... and by the one month mark, you could be seeing muscle fullness and hardness like never before from a drug-free compound. Also, look for increased strength and markedly improved stamina (and not of just the athletic variety). L-Arginine & Nitric OxideWhen it comes to isolated amino acids, it has long been known that very high dosages (typically, 10-15 grams) of L-Arginine taken on an empty stomach can boost short term Nitric Oxide and Growth Hormone (GH) levels. Unfortunately, L-Arginine is not very suitable for use as a long term NO elevation agent due to its inherent limitations. Even for GH release, the frequent high dosages required, unpleasant taste, stomach upset, etc. make following an effective regimen impractical, if not flat out impossible for most. The technological breakthrough of A-AKGEnter a new, state-of-the-art compound called A-AKGAnd the results?As alluded to earlier, when used as directed (easy to follow, detailed instructions are included) the overall positive effects of AAKG are extremely wide reaching in scope and often nothing short of phenomenal. Best of all, AAKG is free of the negative side-effects seen with anabolic steroids, clenbuterol, Viagra and other common drug based performance and physique enhancers.

DOSAGE: 3gm in water / juice before bed• Creates a "Continuous Muscle Pump".
  • Signals Muscle Growth - Speeds Recovery
  • Increases Strength, Stamina & Sexual Vigor

L-Arginine L-Pyroglutamate (APG)

Apg as the focus of world-wide attention in 1981 when Italian researcher A. Isidori, M.D., and his colleagues of the University of Rome determined that a combination of 1200 milligrams L-Lysine and 1200 milligrams L-Arginine L-Pyroglutamate when given orally to a group of 15 male volunteers between the ages of 15 and 20 was more than 10 times more effective at increasing blood levels human growth hormone than taking only the amino acid L-Arginine by itself (yielding a average net HGH increase of more than 700%). According to these researchers, "we could demonstrate that the association of the two amino acids does result in the release of biologically active HGH able to affect peripheral cellular receptors and thus cell growth in general.

Arginine pyroglutamate is the L-arginine salt of pyroglutamic acid. It is also known as pirglutargine and arginine pidolate. Arginine pyroglutamate is a delivery form of pyroglutamate. Pyroglutamate is formed in the body by the cyclization of the amino acid glutamic acid and is found naturally in plant and animal products, including the brain. Pyroglutamate is also known as 2-oxo-pyrrolidone carboxylic acid or PCA and 5-oxoproline. Pyroglutamate is an intermediate of the gamma-glutamyl cycle of glutathione synthesis and degradation.

Arginine pyroglutamate, which is comprised of the amino acid L-arginine and the imino acid pyroglutamate, is a water-soluble substance.


Arginine pyroglutamate is reputed to have cognition-enhancing activity. The activity is attributed to pyroglutamate.

Since the action of arginine pyroglutamate is unclear, its mechanism of action is entirely speculative. However, pyroglutamate is structurally related to the drug piracetam, and more is known about piracetam's activity. Piracetam belongs to a class of drugs known as nootropics. The term "nootropic," from the Greek, means "acting on the mind." Piracetam, like pyroglutamate, is a pyrrolidone. Piracetam and related nootropics facilitate learning and memory in animal models, although human studies give mixed results except perhaps in dyslexia.

The effects of piracetam are thought to be mediated through effects on membrane fluidity in the brain. Further, some pyrrolidone-nootropic agents appear to interact with metabotropic glutamate receptors. It is not known whether pyroglutamate has any of these activities.

Little is known in detail about the pharmacokinetics of arginine pyroglutamate. Arginine pyroglutamate gets absorbed across the small intestine and is transported by the portal circulation to the liver, where both L-arginine and pyroglutamate enter into various metabolic pathways. Some pyroglutamate appears to pass into the brain.

Arginine pyroglutamate may help improve cognition (e.g. verbal memory) in the aged, though more research is required to confirm this.

The primary claim made for this arginine salt of pyroglutamic acid relates to cognitive enhancement. It is asserted by some that this substance can help overcome memory defects induced by alcohol abuse and in those with some forms of dementia. Some use the supplement in Italy to treat alcoholism, senility and mental retardation. While such sweeping use is unwarranted based on current findings, there are data that suggest a cognitive-enhancing role for arginine pyroglutamate, though how significant a role is far from established. Some animal studies show that the substance has positive effects in cortical and cholinergic mechanisms and that it has cognition-enhancing properties. And in one double-blind study of aged human subjects, verbal memory was said to be improved in those taking arginine pyroglutamate compared with controls who received placebo.


Hypersensitivity to any component of the preparation.

Children, pregnant women and nursing mothers should avoid taking arginine pyroglutamate supplements.

Arginine pyroglutamate is generally well tolerated. Minor gastrointestinal complaints have been noted.

There are no known reports of overdosage.

The usual recommended dose is 500 to 1000 milligrams daily. A 500 milligram dose delivers about 150 milligrams of L-arginine and about 350 milligrams of pyroglutamate.

Carnitine (vitamin Bt)

Carnitine and lysine. Carnitine is the generic term for a number of compounds that include L-carnitine, L-acetylcarnitine, acetyl-L-carnitine, and L-propionyl carnitine. Carnitine can be synthesised within the body from lysine or methionine. As with all amino acids used directly in the metabolism, carnitine exists in the left-handed form. This isomer is expressed as L-carnitine, as it is usually marketed. Carnitine is eaten in the diet in red meats and dairy products, including breast milk, and is also made in the body from breaking down muscle protein and converting it to carnitine.

Carnitine is a nutrient responsible for the transport of long-chain fatty acids into the energy-producing centers of the cells (known as the mitochondria). Carnitine plays a critical role in metabolizing a number of other important substances as well, which helps to explain why it holds promise for so many disorders. Carnitine transports fats into the mitochondria, the cellular powerhouse, where these fats are converted into an energy source for the body. Our heart and skeletal muscle tissue rely on fat utilization as a source of energy, and also to spare glycogen. Carnitine helps the body convert fatty acids into energy, which is used primarily for muscular activities throughout the body. The body produces carnitine in the liver and kidneys and stores it in the skeletal muscles, heart, brain, and sperm. Carnitine can also act as an antioxidant and appears to play a role in maintaining the health of nerves and protecting the liver and kidneys from the toxicity of drugs. is a non-essential amino acid produced in the liver, brain and the kidneys from the essential amino acids methionine.

Carnitine (vitamin Bt) functions, uses, and health benefits

Carnitine helps transport fatty acids to the powerhouse of the cell. Fatty acids are the main fuel source for heart and skeletal muscle. Long-chain fatty acids require l-carnitine to transport them across the inner membranes of the mitochondria, wherein their metabolism produces bioenergy. L-carnitine can remove short-chain and medium-chain fatty acids from the mitochondria in order to maintain coenzyme A levels in these organelles. L-Carnitine also facilitates the metabolism of carbohydrates and enhances the rate of oxidative phosphorylation. L-Carnitine works synergistically with CO-Q10, an antioxidant and energy co-factor that is found in the inner membrane of the mitochondria.

Carnitine plays a critical role in metabolizing a number of other important substances as well, which helps to explain why it holds promise for so many disorders. Carnitine mediates the transport of medium/long-chain fatty acids across mitochondrial membranes, facilitating their oxidation with subsequent energy production. Carnitine may have neuroprotective effects. This means that the strong antioxidant properties of acetyl-L-carnitine may help to prevent oxidative damage to nerve cells that are important for brain functioning.

The strongest evidence for the use of supplemental L-carnitine may be in the management of cardiac ischemia and peripheral arterial disease. It may also more generally be indicated for cardioprotection. It lowers triglyceride levels and increases levels of HDL-cholesterol in some. It is used with some benefit in those with primary and secondary carnitine deficiency syndromes. There is less evidence to support arguments that carnitine is indicated in liver, kidney and immune disorders or in diabetes and Alzheimer's disease.

Carnitine is used for a small percentage of people who are at risk of liver damage from AEDs and is used for children with multiple seizure types who are taking multiple AEDs. Carnitine is used in emergency situations where there is liver damage caused by valproate, or in cases of valproate overdose. It is used in rare diseases involving problems of the transport of carnitine into the mitochondria.

L-carnitine has been marketed as a weight loss supplement, because the primary function of carnitine in human cells is to burn fat as a source of energy. Carnitine supplementation may actually help increase energy, burn fat more efficiently and may improve heart and liver health all at the same time.

Carnitine is recommended as a daily supplement to help maintain blood lipid profile and promote fatty acid utilization within heart muscle. People who take l-carnitine supplements soon after suffering a heart attack may be less likely to suffer a subsequent heart attack, die of heart disease, experience chest pain and abnormal heart rhythms, or develop congestive heart failure. Some studies have shown Carnitine may reduce the pain and complications of lack of oxygen to the heart and improve exercise tolerance in people with existing heart disease.

The function of carnitine is to help the body use stored fat as fuel. Carnitine is helpful for improving exercise performance. Supplementation with carnitine has been said to enhance lipid oxidation, increase VO2max and decrease the accumulation of lactic acid during exercise.

Carnitine reduces the incidence of angina and cardiac arrythmias as well as reduces the need for anti-angina and anti-arrythmic medications.

Acetyl-L-carnitine may be indicated for use in cases of mild Alzheimer's disease, dementia, Down's syndrome, recovery from stroke and for the management of various neuropathies.

Carnitine (vitamin Bt) dosage, intake, recommended daily allowance (RDA).

Carnitine is not an essential amino acid and, since it is not a vitamin or a mineral, no RDA or dietary reference intake (DRI) values have been established. The L-isomer of carnitine (L-carnitine) is the only physiologically useful form of carnitine. Recommended doses of l-carnitine supplements vary depending on the health condition being treated. The normal recommended dose appears to be 500 milligrams (MG) to 1,000 mg per day. Then gradually work up to 2 to 4 grams (2,000 to 4,000 mg) per day. Typical doses of supplemental acetyl-L-carnitine are between 500 mgs to 2 gms daily in divided doses. Doses of 2 to 6 grams per day are typically recommended for cardiovascular, sports performance and weight loss benefits. Infant formulas (including total parenteral nutrition solutions) that do not contain carnitine should be supplemented with carnitine to the levels found in human milk, 11.3 mg/L (70 mmol/L).

Sources of carnitine

Dietary sources of carnitine include foods of animal origin, such as meat and dairy products. Red meat (particularly lamb) and dairy products are the primary sources of carnitine. Carnitine can also be found in fish, poultry, tempeh (fermented soybeans), wheat, asparagus, avocados, and peanut butter. Cereals, fruits, and vegetables contain little or no carnitine. Carnitine can be manufactured in the body provided the requisite vitamins and minerals are also present. A typical Western diet supplies about 100mg of carnitine per day. It is found mostly in red meats and dairy products. Plant foods are not good sources of carnitine. In general, healthy adults do not require dietary carnitine as carnitine stores are replenished through endogenous synthesis from lysine and methionine in the liver and kidneys.

Carnitine deficiency

There are two types of carnitine deficiency, primary and secondary. In both primary and secondary carnintine deficiencies, increased dietary intake and supplements of carnitine can be beneficial. Although the exact mechanism is unknown, it is thought that flooding the body with high concentrations of carnitine assures that some carnitine are able to get into the cells. Carnitine deficiency occurs as a primary genetic defect of carnitine transport and secondary to a variety of genetic and acquired disorders. A person with primary carnitine deficiency has very low levels of carnitine in the blood due to a faulty carnitine transporter which prevents carnitine from getting into the cells where it is needed. The secondary form of carntine deficiency can arise secondary to metalobic disorders in the mitochondria. Blockage of metabolic pathways in the mitochondria leads to a build-up of acyl compounds. Infants are particularly susceptible to carnitine depletion, because the demands of tissue accretion associated with rapid growth exceed the ability of the infant to synthesize carnitine.

Carnitine overdose, toxicity, side effects

There have been no reports of toxicity from L-carnitine overdosage. The oral LD50 of L-carnitine in mice is 19.2 grams per kilogram. D-carnitine supplements should be avoided as they interfere with the natural form of L-carnitine and may produce undesirable side effects. L-carnitine supplementation may cause mild gastrointestinal symptoms, including nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps and diarrhea. Adverse effects may include transient nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps and diarrhea. Less frequent reactions may include body odour or gastrointestinal symptoms. Other rare side effects include increased appetite, body odor, and rash.


Mental processes like memory and attention are complex processes, so they cannot be addressed with a single pathway. At the same time, it is well-known that acetylcholine (Ach) is central to our mental function, and especially our ability to focus and to remember facts and verbal information. Acetylcholine is made in the nervous system from a B-vitamin-like raw material called choline which comes from lecithin. Lecithin, found in foods such as eggs, soybeans, peanuts, and liver, is the predominant source of choline in the human diet.Health Benefits of Choline Bitartrate.

Growing evidence now suggests that dietary choline is very important for the prevention of many pathologic conditions, and has been used as a dietary supplement for the purpose of treating or preventing several human diseases including arteriosclerosis and certain deficiencies of brain function and memory.Choline has also been shown to be essential for proper brain development in infants and children. In fact, supplementation of animal diets with choline or lecithin at particular times of brain development has been shown to permanently increase cognitive function. Lower levels of acetylcholine are associated with memory loss and learning difficulties that occur in aging brains. In one experiment, university students improved test scores after taking supplemental choline.

CLA Info What is it and where does it come from?

CLA is research proven to build muscle, reduce body fat, and induce an optimum cellular environment for improved health!

CLA occurs naturally in foods such as milk, cheese, beef, and lamb as well as many processed foods. One processed food in particular that's high in CLA is Cheez Wiz. But getting enough CLA from your diet for the preferred benefit would require considerable intake of these types of foods. This is not only impractical, but would also have a seriously acid and regulates fat and protein metabolism in animals. Pariza, director of the Food Research Institute at the University of Wisconsin said, "A growing body of data indicates that CLA is a newly recognized nutrient that functions to regulate energy retention and metabolism." CLA can best be described as a Growth Factor.

Food intake efficiency! CLA has been shown in animal studies to increase growth rate through increased feed efficiency. In controlled studies, animals that had their diets supplemented with CLA increased their body protein (muscle tissue) while at the same time, had a significant decrease in body fat. This all occurred in the CLA supplemented animals while their food intake was decreased. Their lean mass increased even though they were eating less! This indicates that CLA increases feed efficiency and also points to a potent nutrient repartitioning effect.

This significant change in body composition can also be attributed in part to CLA's effect on immune function. CLA has been shown to inhibit the lean tissue wasting caused by high levels of these cytokines.

Actual human studies are on the way with anticipation of similar outcomes. CLA may be the most significant bodybuilding nutrient discovered in this decade. With negative impact on your metabolism due to the high caloric penalty you would pay.

Fatty Acid That Helps You Lose Fat.

Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA), is a naturally occurring free fatty acid found mainly in meat and dairy products, in small amounts. CLA was discovered by accident in 1978 by Michael W. Pariza at the University of Wisconsin while looking for mutagen formations in meat during cooking. What does it do and what scientific studies give evidence to support this?Since this research has surfaced, a more economical and efficient way to get the required CLA has been devised. Through advanced lipid technology, a CLA synthesizing process allows for precision intake through premeasured softgel capsules. This allows for precise CLA intake at determined time intervals without the high calorie food consumption. Not only has CLA been shown to increase muscle mass while reducing body fat, studies have also shown remarkable anti-catabolic, antioxidant, and immune enhancement benefits. All this from a structured lipid. A designer fat if you would.

For many years, performance nutrition experts basically dismissed fats, assuming they didn't have any useful role in nutrition. Instead, experts focused on the protein-sparing and energy-producing effects of carbohydrates, and studied how amino acids and various proteins might affect nitrogen retention, anabolism, and catabolism. Perhaps "inquiring minds" were influenced by the mass media's "all-fat-is-bad" campaign. But now the scales are tipping toward the contrary. Nutritional geniuses like The Zone author, Dr. Barry Sears have shown us how fatty acids are not only essential for proper health but also how the proper use of such compounds may have numerous positive effects. Dr. Sears is certain that fatty acids directly influence the body's growth-promoting hormones.

Although all the intricacies of CLA are not fully understood, it is widely accepted in the research community that CLA counterbalances the negative effects of linoleic anti-catabolic effects rivaling even the strongest pharmaceutical compounds, CLA is a naturally occurring nutrient with the ability to help you pack on lean muscle, reduce body fat and at the same time possesses health promoting properties. Who needs it and what are some symptoms of deficiency?

To the athlete looking to add more muscle and drop body fat, CLA is a unique discovery that will make accomplishing this feat easier and faster, all the while having positive effects on immune function and antioxidant status. How much should be taken? Are there any side effects?

CLA is typically found in capsules or softgels between potencies between 600mg and 1000mg.

All preliminary evidence shows that CLA is nontoxic and safe at recommended dosages. While this is powder RDA’s remain the same.

Collagen Supplement HCP

Over the years, collagen and HCP are becoming more often used in a variety of ways in the fields of aesthetics and medicine.

As you age, collagen levels decrease and break down within the skin surface producing looser and less elastic skin. You can see wrinkles and experience the "flabby skin" syndrome. In the past, synthesized or natural collagen has built a reputation as an anti-aging skin improver. Included in creams and lotions you apply it externally, in topical form, as a means of reducing wrinkles, plumping up thinning skin and providing you with a fresh, young look. It is highly recommended in this area of beautification.

Collagen supplements may improve the undesired appearance caused by collagen depletion with age. Recently, companies began offering ingestible collagen supplements that may be absorbed by the body. The collagen molecule historically has been considered too large to be absorbed but new advances have been noted in making collagen bioavailable. You can always also inject collagen. Lip injections puff up lips.

Europe has been using HCP for decades. They use collagen as both a dietary supplement and, in some cases, as an natural option for joint and bone health Research in Germany and Czechoslovakia found some preliminary evidence to support the ability of daily intake of HCP to decrease joint stiffness. Another small scientific study showed HCP did suppress bone decomposition in women with osteoporosis .Other evidence suggests that HCP may help athletes recover faster from intense exercise training or sports injuries.

Overall, research seems to indicate HCP supports healthy bones and cartilage, and encourages strong tissue that can help prevent sprains or strains. On the one hand, HCP is a "poor" protein source. It is low in the sulfur containing amino acids. On the other hand, however, HCP is a densely rich source of the primary amino acids that make up the collagen protein. These include glycine, proline and lysine as well as the two unusual amino acids: hydroxyproline, and hydroxyl sine. Certain scientists believe, HCP, as a concentrated source, facilitates nourishment of tissues such as cartilage, bones, tendons, ligaments and skin - the body's collagen-containing tissues.

A further point in collagen's favor is its price. HCP is less expensive than many joint-support supplements. This makes it more accessible. This is good news for the various health agencies. They say more and more people are at risk of developing this osteoporosis and osteoarthritis. Figures are continuing to climb. HCP can help reduce the risk and do so for people from all economic levels.

Although collagen primarily finds itself touted as a beauty aid, there are now studies showing HCP can be useful in promoting joint health, supporting cartilage and bones and helping athletes recover faster.DOSAGE: While there are no defined RDA’s and no negative effects associated with overdose or contraindications . A daily dosages of 3 to 5 grams dissolved in water or in capsule form should be basis for your digestive tolerance .Collagen is a structural and fibrous protein occurring naturally within the body. It makes up at least 75 percent of your skin. Collagen feeds and supports skin, bones, teeth, blood vessels and such connective tissue as cartilage, tendons, and ligaments. It supports the quick healing of wounds and keeping the skin soft and fresh in appearance. Hydrolyzed collagen Protein (HCP) or collagen hydrolysate, is simply a modified form of collagen.
Creatine Monohydrate
What is creatine?Visit any health food store or browse through a sports magazine and you'll probably come across creatine and, in particular, creatine supplements. But what is it and what does it do?

Creatine is produced naturally by the body and helps to improve muscles' performance during exercise. This improvement in performance should allow you to train at higher levels for certain sports and gain muscle.

Foods such as meat and fish provide much of the body's creatine and the rest is made in the body by the liver, kidneys and pancreas. It is stored in the muscles as phosphocreatine (you may find it referred to as PC) contributing to the body's energy stores used during intense exercise.Why take creatine supplements?Increasing the muscle stores of phosphocreatine by taking a creatine supplement theoretically improves the ability to maintain power output during intensive exercise. It is also thought to aid recovery between short bursts of activity. This effect could benefit your training program and provide an important edge when competing.

Taking creatine supplements can increase your muscle stores of phosphocreatine by roughly 20 per cent on average. However, the exact increase can vary depending on the individual - the range is somewhere between 10 per cent and 40 per cent.1

Increasing your muscle stores of creatine is particularly beneficial if you are involved in sports that involve short bursts of intense exercise. It can also help you maintain higher training volumes.Creatine and different types of physical performanceEvidence suggests that creatine supplementation is probably more useful for those sports whose activities require a good anaerobic performance.2 such activities include weight lifting, sprinting, football and rugby. There have been many studies to examine its effect in this area and over half of these have shown quite positive outcomes. Therefore, for those athletes whose sport requires strength combined with intense activity, this supplement could help.

However, for sports requiring mainly aerobic performance there is less evidence that creatine supplementation is helpful. So, for the endurance athletes - such as runners, cyclists and long distance swimmers - the case is not so strong. Nevertheless, a few studies have shown some improvement in performance.3 For example, a study at Louisiana State University found that creatine supplements delayed the onset of muscle fatigue in endurance athletes by boosting their lactate thresholds.4 So, for some aerobic sports, it may be useful.Will taking creatine supplements alter my body weight or body composition?Studies have shown that creatine supplementation does increase body weight and also has an effect on body composition.5,6 In particular it increases muscle mass and this effect has been found in both male and female athletes. Weight increases of up to 4kg have been reported after a period of six weeks with creatine supplementation.

It is thought that this weight gain occurs because increases in the concentration of creatine in the muscles has the effect of drawing water into the muscle cells, thus increasing cell volume. This increase in volume acts as an anabolic signal which helps to reduce protein breakdown and improves the body's usage of protein. The end result is an increase in lean body tissue.What's the best way to supplement the diet with creatine?The most extensively used form of supplement is creatine monohydrate. It is a white powder which is almost tasteless and dissolves in water. Ideally, creatine should be taken together with some carbohydrate-rich food. This is because the carbohydrate increases the concentration of insulin in the blood stream which, in turn, helps the creatine to be absorbed by the muscle cells. A snack containing between 30g to 40g of carbohydrate is ideal for this purpose. For example, a banana, two thick slices of whole meal bread, or a bowl of muesli.

There are other forms of creatine. For example, creatine phosphate and creatine citrate. However, these are not absorbed any more readily and are also more expensive.How much should I take?As far as the dosage of creatine is concerned, there are a number of different recommendations. There are no Recommended Daily Amounts (RDAs) for creatine as such. However, most manufacturers suggest starting off with a loading dose of about 20g per day for five days. After this initial period, follow up with a "maintenance" dose of around 2g per day on an ongoing basis. There is no benefit in taking a higher dose since muscles have a maximum storage capacity and any excess is simply lost from the body.Is creatine supplementation safe and are there any side effects?Studies so far have not highlighted any problems.7,8 If you are training and taking creatine supplements you will almost certainly gain weight, particularly lean body mass. Creatine supplementation is not illegal and is allowed by the International Olympic Committee.

Key points

  • Creatine monohydrate is the most widely used form of creatine supplement.
  • Creatine is made up of three amino acids and is stored as phosphocreatine in muscles
  • Creatine delays muscle fatigue by "buffering" the build up of lactic acid in the muscles
  • It speeds up recovery between bouts of high-intensity physical activity
  • It extends maximal muscle power output
  • It increases total body mass - particularly lean muscle tissue
  • May be especially beneficial to athletes involved in high-intensity activities particularly where interval training and strength training are involved i.e. anaerobic activities
  • There is a small amount of evidence that it may also help athletes involved in mainly aerobic activities - for example endurance running and cycling - although the evidence is not strong.
  • Dosage - there are a variety of recommendations, however the most widely used is a loading dose of 20g per day for five days, followed by a maintenance dose of 2g per day. Doses in excess of this are of no benefit as muscle can only store a certain amount and any excess is removed from the body · Side-effects - there appear to be no proven side-effects.
  • Creatine supplementation is allowed in sport by the International Olympic Committee (2002) Why do some athletes use it?Some athletes say that creatine monohydrate helps build muscle mass and improves performance and delays muscle fatigue during short-duration, high-intensity exercise, such as sprinting or weight lifting.
During loading phase, mix one(1) rounded teaspoon (5g) into 8oz of water or non-acidic juice, (4) times daily for (3) days. During maintenance phase, mix one (1) rounded teaspoon (5g) into 8oz of water or non-acidic juice, 2 times daily. (Once 30 min. before workout, once 30 min. after workout) As always, we strongly advise you do your own research and more importantly consult your own medical professional before commencing any use of this or any other dietary supplement .This statement has not been evaluated by the FDA. This is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

Creatine Ethyl Ester Info

What is it and where does it come from?Creatine Ethyl Ester HCL (CEE) is creatine monohydrate with an ester attached. Esters are organic compounds that are formed by esterification - the reaction of carboxylic acid and alcohols. What does it do and what scientific studies give evidence to support this?Regular creatine monohydrate has been shown effective at increasing lean muscle mass muscle strength and athletic performance.

However, regular creatine monohydrate is absorbed poorly by the body - and its effectiveness is dependant upon the cells ability to absorb it. The poor absorption rate of regular creatine monohydrate requires the creatine user to ingest large dosages of creatine to achieve desired effect.

Because creatine draws water to the cell, and because most ingested creatine monohydrate is not absorbed, unabsorbed creatine will sit outside of the target cell with the water, and this will result in the "creatine bloat."

Long-term clinical studies have proven that creatine monohydrate is safe for use by persons free of medical complication, but why would you want to ingest more creatine monohydrate than you have to simply because your creatine is inefficient?

Creatine ethyl ester is creatine monohydrate with an ester attached. The attachment of an ester is significant, because esters are found in the fat tissue of animals. But, why is this important? What role does this have in the absorption of creatine?

All substances that you put into your body will affect its operation. There are three ways that substances can affect a cells operation.

They are:
  • Ligand binding to protein receptor sites.
  • Secondary messenger / metabotropic systems.
  • Passive permeation of the cell wall via lipids.
When a substance enters the body and affects the bodies operation, it is known as a ligand. The soma and dendrites of the cell have protein receptor sites to which ligands can bind. The process of a ligand binding with a receptor site is akin to a lock and key: only keys of a certain shape work with certain locks. When they work and cause the cells stimulation they are called agonists. When they block the cell from functioning they are called antagonists.

When a ligand binds with the receptor site of a target cell, the cell, in the simplest of cases, changes its shape, opens up its ion channels and changes its function. In so-called "secondary messenger" or metabotropic cells, the ligand binds with the receptor site and an internal protein known as a g-protein is released. This released protein then binds to an internal site inside of the cell, and then the cell changes its behavior by opening its ion channels. Cells that operate in this way are known as metabotropic cells because their operation requires metabolic energy.

Passive permeation is a process that describes the diffusion of a substance across a cell membrane through the use of lipids as transport mechanisms. Because no "work" is being done by the cell in this model, this model is called passive permeation.

Creatine monohydrate utilizes lipids to permeate the cell wall and enter the cell. Because of this, the esterification of creatine, and the presence of esters in animal fat tissue, becomes significant.

Creatine monohydrate is semi-lipopholic. This means that it inefficiently uses fat as a transport mechanism. The esterification of substances will increase their lipopholic abilities, and thus esterified creatine will use fat more efficiently to permeate the cell wall and exert its effects upon cellular function than its unesterified creatine monohydrate counterpart.

This means, simply, that not only will dosage requirements be lower, but the absorption of esterified creatine will be increased and the infamous "creatine bloat" will be eliminated! Who needs it and what are some symptoms of deficiency?Creatine Ethyl Ester can benefit persons of all ages, as it displays the same benefits as regular creatine monohydrate. Is Creatine Ethyl Ester real?Much controversy has been generated over creatine ethyl ester. Companies and individuals with a financial interest in promoting creatine monohydrate products have attempted to discredit creatine ethyl ester. Some companies have even gone so far as to commission laboratory reports that show that creatine ethyl ester is not real.

COA's - certificates of analysis - proving that creatine ethyl ester is real. These are included so that you, the consumer, can make up your own mind - so that you can base your choices upon the power of information.

The esterification of creatine is chemically possible and not hard to conceive. Those who claim that CEE is fake are denying obvious science and are cheating the consumer. How much should be taken? Are there any side effects?2 – 5 gms 20 minutes before exercise.

No side effects have been reported in scientific literature.


DMAE alleviates the behavioral problems and hyperactivity associated with Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) [DMAE increases Attention Span, decreases Aggression, improves Learning ability and sometimes increases Intelligence in 70% of ADD patients].

DMAE increases Attention Span [after 6 weeks of DMAE supplementation students were able to concentrate at lectures better and were able to study and concentrate on exams better].

DMAE inhibits and reverses the Cross-Linking of proteins.

DMAE extends the lifespan of mice by 27-49%.

DMAE facilitates the removal of Lipofuscin from Neurons.

DMAE decreases the incidence and severity of Hangovers in people who consume excessive amounts of Alcohol [after 6 weeks of DMAE use subjects reported freedom from the depression or headaches associated with hangovers].

DMAE may improve Athletic Performance (by improving the body’s production of Energy) [anecdotal reports: many athletes report increased subjective feelings of Energy following DMAE supplementation].

DMAE increases the body's production of Energy and persons using DMAE subjectively report increases in their levels of Energy.

DMAE mildly stimulates the Central Nervous System (CNS).

Most people who use DMAE supplements report that after 3-4 weeks of DMAE use, they notice a continual mild stimulation of their CNS without side effects.

DMAE increases Alertness.

DMAE alleviates Anxiety [subjects administered 1,200 mg (1.2 gm) of DMAE per day for 5 days exhibited better control of anxious reactivity].

DMAE increases Assertiveness [after 6 weeks of DMAE supplementation subjects reported having a more outspoken personality].

DMAE reduces Apathy and increases Motivation in persons afflicted with Depression.

DMAE improves the Interhemispheric Flow of Information in the Corpus Callosum of the Brain (thereby improving Creativity and Verbal Fluency).

DMAE improves the behavior and Mental Function of children afflicted with Down’s Syndrome.

DMAE exerts favorable effects on those chronic Dyskinesias (including Tardive Dyskinesia) that occur as a result of long periods of use of Major Tranquilizers.

DMAE increases Intelligence (especially in children).

DMAE improves Learning and Memory.

DMAE decreases the accumulation of Lipofuscin within the Brain.

DMAE elevates Mood [after 6 weeks of DMAE supplementation, subjects reported more affable moods].

DMAE reduces the amount of Sleep required by about 1 hour per night [this effect noted after 6 weeks of DMAE use].

DMAE causes Dreams to become more lucid (vivid).

DMAE users experience a sounder Sleep [after 6 weeks subjects reported waking earlier and having a clearer mind upon waking].

DMAE increases daytime motivation and physical Energy in persons afflicted with Insomnia.

DMAE increases Willpower [after 6 weeks of DMAE use, subjects who previously were unable to stop smoking reported success].

DMAE removes Lipofuscin (age spots) from the skin.

DMAE increases Acetylcholine levels within the Brain:

Medical researchers have speculated that the means by which DMAE increases Brain Acetylcholine levels is by inhibiting Choline metabolism in peripheral tissues, thereby allowing free Choline to accumulate and subsequently enter the Brain where it is converted to Acetylcholine.

DMAE increases the content of Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) in the Brain [research - rats].

DMAE is a component of the chemical structure of Centrophenoxine.

DMAE increases the concentration of Choline in the bloodstream because it enhances the rate at which free Choline enters the blood from other tissues:

DMAE increases the levels of Choline in the brain due to DMAE’s superior ability to cross the Blood-Brain Barrier.

DMAE inhibits the metabolism of Choline in peripheral tissues (permitting "free" Choline to enter the Brain and stimulate the production of Acetylcholine) [research - mice].OVERVEIWDimethylamino Ethanol (DMAE), a natural amino alcohol found, in small amounts, in the brain, is considered a precursor of choline necessary for the brain to make acetylcholine.

Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter in healthy nerve signal conduction and function. As a supplement, DMAE works with gingko biloba and other "smart nutrients".

DMAE is found in fish, salmon, and especially sardines. The human brain maintains a small amount of DMAE, which plays various crucial functions. DMAE protects the integrity of cell membranes, the deterioration of which can lead to premature aging.More DMAE factsDMAE is a mood elevator, counteracting depression and bad moods, and raising and improving cognitive functions like memory and concentration.

It may also treat autism, Alzheimer’s, ADHD, memory deficits, depression, and dementia. DMAE can even increase intelligence. These benefits result from DMAE’s role in manufacturing acetylcholine, a substance responsible for healthy mental functioning.

Physicians monitoring patients on DMAE have reported them to be more upbeat and exhibiting greater mental acuity. Those who regularly take DMAE have reported both sleeping more soundly and being more energetic when awake.

One DMAE benefits most promising benefits is that, by stopping the manufacture of arachidonic acid, which can lead to wrinkles and aging of the skin, DMAE promotes healthy skin. DMAE used to stop arachidonic acid production can be either taken internally as a nutritional supplement, or applied as a topical creamDMAE: What to Watch Out ForWhile DMAE has no known toxicity, and is considered a very safe supplement, there is no RDA.

Those with epilepsy or seizure disorders, bipolar depression, or Parkinson’s disease and pregnant or nursing women should not use DMAE without their doctors’ approval.

The rare side effects of DMAE include gastro-intestinal problems, body odor, drowsiness, confusion, high blood pressure, moderate depression, and persistent irritability.(Recommended Daily Allowance) set for it (1 gram per day is a good starting point) . There are, however, some cautions for people with certain conditions.


Other names N-[4(2-Amino-4-hydroxy pteridin-6-ylmethylamino) benzoyl]-L(+)-glutamic acid; pteroyl-L-glutamic acid; Vitamin B9; Vitamin M; Folacin

Folate is necessary for the production and maintenance of new cells. This is especially important during periods of rapid cell division and growth such as infancy and pregnancy. Folate is needed to synthesize DNA bases (most notably thymine, but also purine bases) needed for DNA replication. Thus folate deficiency hinders DNA synthesis and cell division, affecting most notably bone marrow and cancer, both of which participate in rapid cell division. RNA transcription, and subsequent protein synthesis, are less effected by folate deficiency as the mRNA can be recycled and used again (as opposed to DNA synthesis where a new genomic copy must be created). Since folate deficiency limits cell division, erythropoiesis, production of red blood cells (RBCs) is hindered and leads to megaloblastic anemia which is characterized by large immature RBCs. This pathology results from persistently thwarted attempts at normal DNA replication, DNA repair, and cell division and produces abnormally large cells (megaloblasts) with abundant cytoplasm capable of RNA and protein synthesis but with clumping and fragmentation of nuclear chromatin. Some of these large cells, although immature, are released early from the marrow in an attempt to compensate for the anemia caused by lack of RBCs. [2] Both adults and children need folate to make normal RBCs and prevent anemia Deficiency of folate in pregnant women has been implicated in neural tube defects and so many cereals sold in developed countries are enriched with folate to avoid such complications.

In the form of a series of tetrahydrofolate (THF) compounds, folate derivatives are substrates in a number of single-carbon-transfer reactions, and also are involved in the synthesis of dTMP (2'-deoxythymidine-5'-phosphate) from dUMP (2'-deoxyuridine-5'-phosphate). It is a substrate for an important reaction that involves vitamin B12 and it is necessary for the synthesis of DNA, required for all dividing cells.

The pathway leading to the formation of tetrahydrofolate (FH4) begins when folate (F) is reduced to dihydrofolate (DHF) (FH2), which is then reduced to THF. Dihydrofolate reductase catalyses the last step. Vitamin B3 in the form of NADPH is a necessary cofactor for both steps of the synthesis.Methylene-THF.

In other words: F → DHF2 → THF → CH2-THF Formyl-THF <--> Methynl-THF <.--> Methylene-THF --> Methyl-THFOverview of drugs that interfere with folate reactions A number of drugs interfere with the biosynthesis of folic acid and THF. Among them are the dihydrofolate reductase inhibitors such as trimethoprim, pyrimethamine and methotrexate; the sulfonamides (competitive inhibitors of para-aminobenzoic acid in the reactions of dihydropteroate synthetase). (CH2FH4) is formed from THF by the addition of methylene groups from one of three carbon donors: formaldehyde, serine, or glycine. Methyl tetrahydrofolate (CH3-THF) can be made from methylene-THF by reduction of the methylene group with NADPH. If is important to note that Vitamin B12 is the only acceptor of methyl-THF. There is also only one acceptor for methyl-B12 which is homocysteine in a reaction catalyzed by homocysteine methyltransferase. This is important because a defect in homocysteine methyltransferase or a defeciency of B12 can lead to a methyl-trap of THF and a subsequent deficiency. Thus, a deficiency in B12 can generate a large pool of methyl-THF that is unable to undergo reactions and will mimic folate deficiency. Another form of THF, formyl-THF or folinic acid) results from oxidation of methylene-THF or is formed from formate donating formyl group to THF. Finally, histidine can donate a single carbon to THF to form methenyl-THF.· · · 1998 RDAs for Folate.

Men Women (19+) (19+) Pregnancy Breast feeding 400 µg 400 µg 600 µg 500 µg 1 µg of food folate = 0.6 µg folic acid from supplements and fortified foodsThe National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III 1988-91) and the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (1994-96 CSFII) indicated that most adults did not consume adequate folate. However, the folic acid fortification program in the United States has increased folic acid content of commonly eaten foods such as cereals and grains, and as a result diets of most adults now provide recommended amounts of folate equivalents. Folic Acid / Folate deficiency.

Human reproductionFolic acid is very important for all women who may become pregnant. Adequate folate intake during the periconceptional period, the time just before and just after a woman becomes pregnant, helps protect against a number of congenital malformations including neural tube defects Neural tube defects result in malformations of the spine (spina bifida), skull, and brain (anencephaly). The risk of neural tube defects is significantly reduced when supplemental folic acid is consumed in addition to a healthy diet prior to and during the first month following conception. Women who could become pregnant are advised to eat foods fortified with folic acid or take supplements in addition to eating folate-rich foods to reduce the risk of some serious birth defects. The most notable birth defects that occur from folate deficiency are neural tube defects. Taking 400 micrograms of synthetic folic acid daily from fortified foods and/or supplements has been suggested. The Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for folate equivalents for pregnant women is 600-800 micrograms, twice the normal RDA of 400 micrograms for women who are not pregnant.

Recent research has shown that it is also very important for men who are planning on fathering children, reducing birth defect risksFolic acid supplements and masking of B12 deficiencyThere has been concern about the interaction between vitamin B12 and folic acid Folic acid supplements can correct the anemia associated with vitamin B12 deficiency. Unfortunately, folic acid will not correct changes in the nervous system that result from vitamin B12 deficiency. Permanent nerve damage could theoretically occur if vitamin B12 deficiency is not treated. Therefore, intake of supplemental folic acid should not exceed 1000 micrograms (1000 mcg or 1 mg) per day to prevent folic acid from masking symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency. In fact, to date the evidence that such masking actually occurs is scarce, and there is no evidence that folic acid fortification in Canada or the US has increased the prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency or its consequences.

However one recent study has demonstrated that high folic or folate levels when combined with low B12 levels are associated with significant cognitive impairment among the elderly. If the observed relationship for seniors between folic acid intake, B12 levels, and cognitive impairment is replicated and confirmed, this is likely to re-open the debate on folic acid fortification in food, even though public health policies tend generally to support the developmental needs of infants and children over slight risks to other population groups.

In any case, it is important for older adults to be aware of the relationship between folic acid and vitamin B12 because they are at greater risk of having a vitamin B12 deficiency. If you are 50 years of age or older, ask your physician to check your B12 status before you take a supplement that contains folic acid.Health risk of too much folic acidThe risk of toxicity from folic acid is low.[16] The Institute of Medicine has established a tolerable upper intake level (UL) for folate of 1 mg for adult men and women, and a UL of 800 µg for pregnant and lactating (breast-feeding) women less than 18 years of age. Supplemental folic acid should not exceed the UL to prevent folic acid from masking symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency.

Research suggests high levels of folic acid can interfere with some antimalarial treatments.

A 10000-patient study at Tufts University in 2007 concluded that excess folic acid worsens the effects of B12 deficiency and in fact may affect the absorption of B12. Some current issues and controversies about folateDietary fortification of folic acidSince the discovery of the link between insufficient folic acid and neural tube defects (NTDs), governments and health organizations worldwide have made recommendations concerning folic acid supplementation for women intending to become pregnant. For example, the United States Public Health Service (see External links) recommends an extra 0.4 mg/day, which can be taken as a pill. However, many researchers believe that supplementation in this way can never work effectively enough since about half of all pregnancies in the U.S. are unplanned and not all women will comply with the recommendation.

This has led to the introduction in many countries of fortification, where folic acid is added to flour with the intention of everyone benefiting from the associated rise in blood folate levels. This is controversial, with issues having been raised concerning individual liberty, and the masking effect of folate fortification on pernicious anaemia (vitamin B12 deficiency). However, almost all American countries now fortify their flour, along with a number of Middle Eastern countries and Indonesia. Mongolia and a number of ex-Soviet republics are amongst those having widespread voluntary fortification; about five more countries (including Morocco, the first African country) have agreed but not yet implemented fortification. In the UK the Food Standards Agency has recommended fortification. To date, no EU country has yet mandated fortification.[23] Australia is considering fortification, but a period for comments ending 2006-07-31 attracted strong opposition from industry as well as academia.

Recent debate has emerged in the United Kingdom and Australia regarding the inclusion of folic acid in products such as bread and flour.

In the USA many grain products are fortified with folic acid.

In 1996, the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) published regulations requiring the addition of folic acid to enriched breads, cereals, flours, corn meals, pastas, rice, and other grain products.[27][28] This ruling took effect 1998-01-01, and was specifically targeted to reduce the risk of neural tube birth defects in newborns There are concerns that the amount of folate added is insufficient[2]. In October 2006, the Australian press claimed that U.S. regulations requiring fortification of grain products were being interpreted as disallowing fortification in non-grain products, specifically Vegemite (an Australian yeast extract containing folate). The FDA later said the report was inaccurate, and no ban or other action was being taken against Vegemite.

Since the folic acid fortification program took effect, fortified foods have become a major source of folic acid in the American diet. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta, Georgia used data from 23 birth defect registries that cover about half of United States births and extrapolated their findings to the rest of the country. This data indicates that since the addition of folic acid in grain-based foods as mandated by the Food and Drug Administration, the rate of neural tube defects dropped by 25% in the United States.

Although folic acid does reduce the risk of birth defects, it is only one part of the picture and should not be considered a cure. Even women taking daily folic acid supplements have been known to have children with neural tube defects.Heart diseaseAdequate concentrations of folate, vitamin B12, or vitamin B6 may decrease the circulating level of homocysteine, an amino acid normally found in blood. There is evidence that an elevated homocysteine level is an independent risk factor for heart disease and stroke.[31] The evidence suggests that high levels of homocysteine may damage coronary arteries or make it easier for blood clotting cells called platelets to clump together and form a clot. However, there is currently no evidence available to suggest that lowering homocysteine with vitamins will reduce risk of heart disease. Clinical intervention trials are needed to determine whether supplementation with folic acid, vitamin B12 or vitamin B6 can lower the risk of developing coronary heart disease. The NORVIT trial suggests that folic acid supplementation may do more harm than good.

As of 2006, studies have shown that giving folic acid to reduce levels of homocysteine does not result in clinical benefit. One of these studies suggests that folic acid in combination with B12 may even increase some cardiovascular risks.

However a 2005 study found that 5 mg. of folate daily over a three-week period reduced pulse pressure by 4.7 mmHg. compared with a placebo, and concluded that[Folic acid is a safe and effective supplement that targets large artery stiffness and may prevent isolated systolic hypertension.

Also, as a result of new research, "heart experts" at Johns Hopkins Medical Center reported in March 2008 in favour of therapeutic folate, although they cautioned that it was premature for those at risk of heart attack to self-medicate.StrokeFolic acid appears to reduce the risk of stroke. The reviews indicate only that in some individuals the risk of stroke appears to be reduced, but a definite recommendation regarding supplementation beyond the current recommended daily allowance has not been established for stroke prevention. Observed stroke reduction is consistent with the reduction in pulse pressure produced by folate supplementation of 5 mg per day, since hypertension is a key risk factor for stroke.CancerThe association between folate and cancer appears to be complex It has been suggested that folate may help prevent cancer, as it is involved in the synthesis, repair, and functioning of DNA, and a deficiency of folate may result in damage to DNA that may lead to cancer. Some investigations have proposed that good levels of folic acid may be related to lower risk of esophagus, stomach and ovarian cancer, but benefices of folic acid against cancer may depend on when it is taken and on individual conditions. In addition folic acid may not be helpful, and could even be damaging, in people who already are suffering from cancer or from a precancerous condition.

Conversely, it has been suggested that excess folate may promote tumor initiation. Diets high in folate are associated with decreased risk of colorectal cancer; some studies show an association which is stronger for folate from foods alone than for folate from foods and supplements, while other studies find that folate from supplements is more effective due to greater bioavailability and a 2007 randomized clinical trial found that folate supplements did not reduce the risk of colorectal adenomas.

A 2006 prospective study of 81,922 Swedish adults found that diets high in folate from foods, but not from supplements, were associated with a reduced risk of pancreatic cancer Most epidemiologic studies suggest that diets high in folate are associated with decreased risk of breast cancer, but results are not uniformly consistent: one large cancer screening trial reported a potential harmful effect of high folate intake on breast cancer risk, suggesting that routine folate supplementation should not be recommended as a breast cancer preventive but a 2007 Swedish prospective study found that a high folate intake was associated with a lower incidence of postmenopausal breast cancer. It is very difficult to affirm how each nutrient or nutrient combination affects a person’s risk of cancer. People whose diets are rich in vegetables and low in animal fat and meat have lower risks for some of the most frequent types of cancer. Taking a variety of healthful foods, with most of them coming from plant sources, is a better solution than taking vitaminic supplements. So the authorities are not really sure if this will work for cancer or not, (or the age at which it is safe to start taking folate supplements) but hopefully this will all become clear in the light of research now underway.AntifolatesFolate is important for cells and tissues that rapidly divide.

Cancer cells divide rapidly, and drugs that interfere with folate metabolism are used to treat cancer. The antifolate methotrexate is a drug often used to treat cancer because it inhibits the production of the active form of THF from the inactive dihydrofolate (DHF). Unfortunately, methotrexate can be toxic, producing side effects such as inflammation in the digestive tract that make it difficult to eat normally.Folinic acid DepressionSome evidence links low levels of folate with depression. There is some limited evidence from randomised controlled trials that using folic acid in addition to antidepressant medication may have benefits Researchers at the University of York and Hull York Medical School have confirmed a link between depression and low levels of folate in a research study involving 15,315 However, the evidence is probably too limited at present for this to be a routine treatment recommendation.Memory and mental agilityIn a 3-year trial on 818 people over the age of 50, short-term memory, mental agility and verbal fluency were all found to be better among people who took 800 micrograms of folic acid daily—twice the current RDA—than those who took placebo.

The study was reported in The Lancet on 19 January 2007FertilityFolate is necessary for fertility in both men and women. In men, it contributes to spermatogenesis. In women, on the other hand, it contributes to oocyte maturation, implantation, placentation, in addition to the general effects of folic acid and pregnancy. Therefore, it is necessary to receive sufficient amounts through the diet, in order to avoid subfertility. Induction of acute renal failureFolic acid is used in extremely high doses to induce Acute renal failure in murine models. It should be noted that the dose reported below represents about 120 years of the recommended daily intake [0.4 mg for adults] in one application, an experiment irrelevant to human nutrition. The exact method through which folic acid induces kidney injury in such massive dose is unknown, however it is characterized by the appearance of folic acid crystals in renal tubules and acute tubular necrosis. This method of renal injury is also linked to increased expression of Tumor necrosis factor-alpha. The dose of folic acid used to induce renal injury is usually around 250mg of folic acid per kg of body weight. The folic acid is usually administered in a vehicle of 0.3mmol/L of sodium bicarbonate. , under the drug name leucovorin, is a form of folate (formyl-THF) that can help "rescue" or reverse the toxic effects of methotrexate Folinic acid is not the same as folic acid. Folic acid supplements have little established role in cancer chemotherapy.

There have been cases of severe adverse effects of accidental substitution of folic acid for folinic acid in patients receiving methotrexate cancer chemotherapy. It is important for anyone receiving methotrexate to follow medical advice on the use of folic or folinic acid supplements. The supplement of folinic acid in patients undergoing methotrexate treatment is to give non rapidly dividing cells enough folate to maintain normal cell functions. The amount of folate given will be depleted by rapidly dividing cells (cancer) very fast and so will not negate the effects of methotrexate. Low dose methotrexate is used to treat a wide variety of non-cancerous diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, scleroderma, psoriasis, asthma, sarcoidoisis, primary biliary cirrhosis, and inflammatory bowel disease Low doses of methotrexate can deplete folate stores and cause side effects that are similar to folate deficiency. Both high folate diets and supplemental folic acid may help reduce the toxic side effects of low dose methotrexate without decreasing its effectiveness.

Anyone taking low dose methotrexate for the health problems listed above should consult with a physician about the need for a folic acid supplement. While the role in folate as a cancer treatment is well established its long term effectiveness is diminished by cellular response. In response to decreased THF the cell begins to transcribe more DHF reductase, the enzyme that reduces DHF to THF. Because methotrexate is a competitive inhibitor of DHF reductase increased concentrations of DHF reductase can overcome the drugs inhibition.Recommended Daily Allowence (RDA) Biochemistry of DNA base and amino acid production DNA and cell division Biological roles of Folic Acid / folateFolic acid.

GABA amino acid

GABA stands for gamma-aminobutyric acid, is the product of a biochemical decarboxylation reaction of glutamic acid by the vitamin pyridoxal, as well as from decarboxylase (GAD).GABA is required forGABA is required as an inhibitory neurotransmitter to block the transmission of an impulse from one cell to another in the central nervous system, which prevents over-firing of the nerve cells.

It is also used for brain metabolism and to treat both epilepsy and hypertension where it is thought to induce tranquility in individuals who have a high activity of manic behavior and acute agitation.

In combination with inositol and nicotinamide it helps with blocking anxiety and stress related impulses from reaching the motor centers of the brain.

Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid can be used to calm a person, much like tranquilizers, but without the possibility of addiction.Deficiency of GABAIt has been suggested that a shortage of GABA may cause panic attacks, since an intake of tranquilizers can increase the level of GABA in the body. GABA may also be effective in treating PMS in women.DosageThe dosage listed is .5gm , but be aware that this dosage is the minimum that you require per day, to ward off serious deficiency of this particular nutrient. In the therapeutic use of this nutrient, the dosage is usually increased considerably, but the toxicity level must be kept in mind.

Dosage has not been established, but it is interesting to note that some research suggests that the supplement Kava (kava is a herbal root used as a supplement) causes more GABA receptors to form in the brain. Toxicity and symptoms of high intakeToxic levels have not been established, but very high intake of GABA may cause anxiety, tingling of extremities, shortness of breath as well as a numb feeling around the mouth.Other interesting pointsIt is sometimes used as sexual a stimulant because of its relaxing capabilities, as well as with prostate problems, since it also assists with the release of sex hormones.

What is HMB?

HMB or Beta-Hydroxy Beta-methylbutyrate is a byproduct of the normal breakdown of the amino acid Leucine. It is therefore a metabolite of the essential amino acid - Leucine. HMB is produced in our body from the proteins in our diet and is also consumed in small amounts from the foods we eat. Foods like catfish and alfalfa contain small amounts of HMB.What benefits do HMB supplements have?HMB supplements help to gain muscle by minimizing the amount of muscle that is broken down after you train.

You may get the following benefits:
  • Increased gains of lean muscle
  • Prevents muscle catabolism
  • Speeds up muscle repair and recovery times
  • Decreases body fat
  • Decreases blood cholesterol levels
  • Increase VO2 max and endurance How HMB supplements work:HMB supplements help to slow down a process call proteolysis, which is the natural process of breaking down muscle tissue that occurs after intense physical activity (weight training in this case). Taking HMB gives the body a head start of muscle recovery by minimizing the amount of muscle breakdown and protein degradation after exercise. This means that you body stays in an anabolic state for longer allowing for more muscle growth.
HMB supplements were first used by Iowa State University in cattle. Their tests found that by giving cattle HMB supplements they would produce more muscle tissue and less body fat. Studies were then carried out on humans with the same results. Iowa State University tested 40 men who trained for 4 weeks and found that the men who were given 3 grams of HMB per day built more muscle and lost more body fat the men who trained without HMB.Does HMB have any side effects?Published studies have been undertaken to measure the side effects of taking HMB supplements in men, women, children and the elderly. In 9 separate studies only positive effects were found on muscle, body fat, blood pressure and cholesterol.Can HMB be taken with other supplements?HMB supplements are commonly taken with whey protein, glutamine, creatine and carbs. In fact it's possible to buy blends which contain HMB with other products like creatine and whey protein. Taking HMB with other supplements will actually have a positive effect. For example creatine will give you the power to work your muscles harder and HMB will minimize muscle breakdown and recovery times.

How much HMB you should take:
Like many other muscle building supplements the recommended about of HMB you should be taking depends on your bodyweight. As a general guide, for people weighing up to 130lbs (60kg) 2 grams per day should be enough. For people weighing over 130lbs (60kg) a dosage of 4 grams per day is recommended. You should only take 1 gram at a time, so if you're over 130lbs take 1 gram 4 times per day.How long does it take HMB to work?Measurable increases in strength and muscle mass may be seen in 2-4 weeks.What does it do and what scientific studies give evidence to support this?Many of the world's champions and athletes are using HMB and receiving dramatic results. Specifically, HMB plays a role in the synthesis of muscle tissue. It has the ability to burn fat and build muscle consistently in response to exercise. Backed heavily by science, HMB works for NFL greats like Shannon Sharpe and Olympic medallists throughout the globe. New scientific studies are being conducted on this supplement all the time. Recently, a study showed in a control group supplementing with HMB, that after taking 3 grams of HMB per day for three weeks, those who took HMB versus the random placebo takers gained three times more muscle on their bench press! Animal studies also suggest that it may increase lean muscle mass. A study conducted on humans showed that those who supplemented with HMB experienced enhanced strength, greater endurance, and increased fat loss. It's ability to boost endurance alone is an incredible result. A seven week long study showed a much greater gain in muscle when a group of 28 participated in a regular weight-training program. How does HMB do all this? It appears to increase the rate of protein being used to increase muscle growth, while decreasing the atrophy or tear down of muscle that occurs. Are there any side effects or interactions?No safety issues have been reported in the limited number of studies currently available.

At the time of writing, there were no well-known drug interactions with HMB.


An amino acid ideal for cardiovascular health!

Promotes energy!

How Does L-Citrulline Powder Work?
L-Citrulline is a nonessential amino acid that assists with the detoxification of ammonia from the liver. It's converted to L-arginine, then nitric oxide, in the bloodstream, supporting the body in optimizing blood flow.

Benefits of L-citrulline include:
  • Helps combat fatigue
  • Helps detoxify ammonia in the liver minimizing damage to living cells.
  • L-Citrulline
L-Citrulline Blood Flow, Detoxification, Sexual Performance Supports cardiovascular health by relaxing blood vessels, allowing for increased blood flow and more blood and nutrients circulating in the body. Helps the liver's detoxification process by converting toxic ammonia into urea for elimination. Produces nitric oxide, a key component in the relaxation and dilation of blood vessels, which not only supports cardiac function but also enhances sexual function and enjoyment. L Citrulline has the added benefit of being chemically recycled back into arginine in the endothelial cells of the blood vessels. Citrulline and arginine have similar benefits, however citrulline is a more active and readily available nutrient for cardio function, and it is also a preferred source of nitric oxide synthesis because a greater percentage is directed toward nitric oxide production. is an amino acid that supports the body in optimizing blood flow through its conversion to L-arginine and then nitric oxide. Nitric oxide is involved in vasodilatation and low levels are associated with mental and physical fatigue and sexual dysfunction. L-Citrulline ( like L-Arginine and L-Ornithine), is a metabolite in the urea cycle and is involved in liver detoxification and vasodilatation pathways. It is produced in the urea cycle when carbamoyl phosphate is converted to L-Citrulline in the ornithine carbamoyl transferees reaction. When endogenous supplies of ornithine carbamoyl transferees are insufficient, supplemental L-Citrulline has been shown to support ammonia incorporation and liver detoxification of ammonia Optimizes blood flow through conversion to L-arginine.

Low levels have been associated with mental and physical fatigue and sexual disorders.· Each 1-1/2 tablespoon serving delivers 3,000 mg 3 grams of L-citrulline · Convenient powder mixes easily with juice or water.

L-Citrulline AKG 2:1

Improve Aerobic Performance And Capacity!Citrulline is a non-essential amino acid.

Overall, studies suggest that citrulline malate supplementation can boost athletic performance and enhance recovery by eliminating the amino acid breakdown products of protein metabolism and augmenting the detoxifying capacity of liver cells in removal of ammonium and lactate from the blood. and plays a role in nitrogen balance and metabolic processes. Although not a component of most proteins in the body, citrulline is found in some specialized proteins in the hair, skin and neural cells. It is primarily synthesized from glutamine in the intestines but is also found naturally in trace amounts in some foods. Supplementation of citrulline malate to humans has shown promising results. In several human studies blood lactate concentrations were reduced and ammonia elimination was increase after physical exertion. Rapid recovery from physical effort correlated to the disappearance of lactate from blood after performance at a high level of acidosia suggesting an essential role in acid-base balance.


Leucine is one of three branched-chain amino acids (the others are valine and isoleucine) that enhance energy, increase endurance, and aid in muscle tissue recovery and repair. L-Leucine is an essential amino acid and works with isoleucine and valine to protect muscle and act as fuel. This group also lowers elevated blood sugar levels and increases growth hormone production. Supplemental valine should always be combined with isoleucine and valine at a respective milligram ratio of 2:1:2.

L-leucine is an essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.

Description: White crystals or crystalline powder , slightly bitter taste.

Synonyms: (2S)-α-2-amino-4-methylvaleric acid , L , leu , leucine, 2-amino-4-methylvaleric acid , (2S)-α-leucine.

Molecular formula: C6H13NO2

Molecular Weight: 131.17

CAS NO.: 56-89-3

L-Dopa Info

L-Dopa (L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine) is an amino acid that is formed in the liver and converted into dopamine in the brain. It is essential for integrated movement of individual muscle groups.

Dopamine apparently does not enter the brain from the blood, and is ineffective when it is medically administered. L-Dopa enters the brain through the blood and then it is converted into dopamine.

usage 250mg to 500mg per day best before bed.

What it is:
L-Dopa is an amino acid, which converts to Dopamine. Dopamine is an essential component of our body and it is required for proper functioning of the brain.

What it does:
Although L-Dopa Extract is well known for its treatment of Parkinson's, there are many other benefits. L-Dopa Extract has been shown to significantly increase the body's natural production of human growth hormone (HGH). This is very important because increasing HGH has powerful Health benefits for both men and women.

The benefits to your body are: Mucuna Pruriens gives us an "All Natural" source of L-Dopa Extract. Because the L-Dopa is extracted from a natural plant source, our body actually absorbs and utilizes a higher percentage. The improved absorption means you experience better results with smaller servings.

Because the L-Dopa Extract is from an "All Natural" source, the L-Dopa extract has no side effects. With "Mucuna Pruriens" L-Dopa Extract, you have better absorption and no side effectsIt is recommended that you consult your professional health care provider before supplementing L-Dopa into your daily diet.


L-Lysine is an essential amino acid which bodies cannot produce it, and, therefore, we must obtain it from our diet or through supplementation. There are various medications for shingles that include antiviral drugs, steroids, topical agents, and so on. Some people swear by L-lysine natural help for shingles. Lysine is required for collagen synthesis and it may be important to bone health because it appears to help the body absorb and conserve calcium. Lysine is required for collagen synthesis and it may be important to bone health because it appears to help the body absorb and conserve calcium which both reducing the number of outbreaks and alleviating the severity of the symptoms.Benefits of LysineHerpes and Shingles L-lysine can be used to treat mouth and genital lesions caused by herpes simplex virus as well as shingles caused by herpes zoster viruses. Taking lysine supplements can speed recovery time and reduce the chance of recurrent breakouts of the herpes infection. Osteoporosis L-lysine helps improve the absorption of calcium from the digestive tract and prevent loss of calcium in the urine. In so doing, some researchers speculate that L-lysine may help prevent bone loss associated with osteoporosis. In addition, test tube studies suggest that L-lysine in combination with L-arginine (another amino acid) increases the activity of bone-building cells and enhances production of collagen. Dietary Sources Good sources of lysine are foods rich in protein including meat (specifically red meat, pork, and poultry), cheese (particularly parmesan), certain fish (such as cod and sardines), nuts, eggs, soybeans (particularly tofu, isolated soy protein, and defatted soybean flour), spirulina, and fenugreek seed. Lysine is available in tablets, capsules, creams, and liquids, and is usually sold in the l-lysine form.


N-acetyl-cysteine, derived from the simple amino acid cysteine, provides significant protection against a broad array of modern toxins. Supplementation with N-acetyl-cysteine thus helps the body produce glutathione at more beneficial levels. Glutathione is often considered the body’s most important antioxidant because of its location within the cell, which enhances its ability to neutralize free radicals.

N-acetyl-cysteine helps protect the liver from potentially adverse effects of exposure to a broad range of toxic chemicals, including those chemicals that can poison the body through cumulative use.N-acetyl-cysteineL-cysteineGlutathione.

Even though many published studies show that garlic, selenium, alpha-lipoic acid, L-cysteine and N-acetyl-cysteine can boost cellular glutathione levels, people with health problems may benefit from taking high doses of glutamine. Those with cataracts or liver disease may want to take 500 mg a day of this very potent antioxidant.

N-acetyl-cysteine is the more efficiently absorbed and used form of L-cysteine. N-acetyl-cysteine can act as an antioxidant and is helpful against viruses. N-acetyl-cysteine has been used as a liver protectant and to break up pulmonary and bronchial mucus. N-acetyl-cysteine can boost glutathione levels in cells and can treat acetaminophen induced liver injury.

Dosage and useCaution:
When taking L-cysteine, N-acetyl-cysteine, or glutathione, it is recommended that three times as much vitamin C should be taken at the same time to prevent these amino acids from being oxidized in the body.

500mg to 1.5GM daily are suggested.

This product may be taken with or without food. (gamma-L-glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-glycine) is a peptide (short protein)-like molecule synthesized in the body from the three amino acids L-glutamic acid, L-cysteine, and glycine. Glutathione is one of the body’s most important and powerful antioxidants. A major function of vitamin C is to keep glutathione, L-cysteine, and N-acetyl-cysteine in reduced form so that they can continue to have their powerful free radical quenching effects. is a conditionally essential amino acid, one of only three sulfur-containing amino acids, the others being taurine (which can be produced from L-cysteine) and L-methionine from which L-cysteine can be produced in the body by a multi-step process. L-cysteine can act as an antioxidant, may prevent liver diseases, and can help to thicken the individual diameters of existing hair if taken regularly. is the acetylated form of L-cysteine which is more efficiently absorbed and used. It is also an antioxidant that is helpful against viruses. N-acetyl-cysteine has been used as a liver protectant and to break up pulmonary and bronchial mucus. N-acetyl-cysteine can boost glutathione levels in cells.


OKG supplements, taken at doses shown to be effective (10-15 grams per day) glutamine and arginine, which increase growth hormone levels and are regulators of protein synthesis. Studies show that OKG generates more glutamine and arginine in the systemic circulation than when these substances are given orally.

OKG is a salt formed by combining two molecules of the amino acid ornithine and one molecule of alpha-ketoglutarate. Because OKG seems to be involved in amino acid synthesis and protein availability, many athletes supplement with OKG as a way to increase muscle mass, hormone levels and strength.

Taking OKG decreases muscle protein catabolism (breakdown) and increases protein synthesis, in addition to promoting wound healing. OKG fulfills these functions by encouraging the secretion of insulin and human growth hormone, and by upregulating glutamine and arginine production. When given to trauma patients, there are significant increases in both IGF-1 and growth hormone levels.


Ornithine is an amino acid that does not occur in proteins but is important in the formation of urea. L-Ornithine is a nonprotein amino acid. It is used in the body in the biosynthesis of L-arginine, L-proline and polyamines.

L-Ornithine is a basic amino acid, positively charged at physiological pH. It is also known as alpha,delta-diaminovaleric acid and 2,5-diaminopentanoic acid. Its molecular formula is C5H12N2O2, and its molecular weight is 132.16 daltons.

L-Ornithine is used as a nutritional supplement principally for its putative anabolic activity. There is little evidence to support this use. However, a derivative of L-ornithine called ornithine alpha-ketoglutarate or OKG may, under certain conditions, have immunomodulatory and anticatabolic and/or anabolic actions.

Ornithine is important because it induces the release of growth hormone in the body, which in turn helps with fat metabolism. Ornithine is required for a properly functioning immune system and liver. It assists in ammonia detoxification and liver Rejuvenation. Ornithine helps healing and repairing skin and tissue and is found in both these body parts.. Ornithine is helpful for people recouping after surgery and athletes may benefit from this nutrient.

L-Ornithine can be changed into L-Arginine in the body and it functions similarly in growth hormone release.


Phenylalanine is an essential amino acid (building block for proteins in the body). It is essential to human health but cannot be manufactured by the body. For this reason, phenylalanine must be obtained from food. It is available in three chemical forms, including L-phenylalanine (the natural form of phenylalanine found in proteins throughout the body), D-phenylalanine (a mirror image of L-phenylalanine that is synthesized in a laboratory), and DL-phenylalanine, a combination of the previous two forms. The body converts phenylalanine into tyrosine, another amino acid essential for making proteins, brain chemicals including dopamine and norepinephrine, and thyroid hormones. Symptoms of phenylalanine deficiency include confusion, lack of energy, depression, decreased alertness, decreased memory, and diminished appetite. On the other hand, a rare metabolic disorder called phenylketonuria (PKU) occurs in people who are missing an enzyme that is needed to properly metabolize phenylalanine, causing high levels of phenylalanine in the body. Symptoms of PKU, which tend to appear between 3 and 6 months of age, include eczema, developmental delay, an abnormally small head, and hyperactivity. If it is not treated before 3 weeks of age, PKU can cause severe, irreversible mental retardation. In the United States, newborns are tested for PKU during the first 48 - 72 hours of life. People with PKU must eat a phenylalanine-restricted, tyrosine-supplemented diet to have optimum brain development and growth. Rarely, over-restriction of phenylalanine in the diet can lead to deficiency of this amino acid, with the same symptoms described above. Uses:

Chronic pain:
Although results of clinical studies have not been entirely consistent, preliminary evidence suggests that D-phenylalanine may help reduce chronic pain associated with certain health conditions, such as multiple sclerosis (MS) and fibromyalgia, by stimulating nerve pathways in the brain that control pain. Some scientists, for example, report that they have observed enhanced pain relief when D-phenylalanine is used together with prescription painkillers, including opiates. Other clinical studies have found D-phenylalanine to be no more effective than placebo in reducing pain. Further research is needed to determine the safety and effectiveness of this amino acid for pain.

Parkinson's disease:
One animal study suggests that D-phenylalanine may improve rigidity, walking disabilities, speech difficulties, and depression associated with Parkinson's disease. It is not clear whether these results translate into a possible treatment for people with this disease, however. Further studies in people are necessary before supplementation with this amino acid can be recommended for individuals with Parkinson's disease.

Clinical evidence suggests that combining L-phenylalanine (oral and topical) with UVA radiation for people with vitiligo, a condition characterized by irregular depigmentation (loss of color) or white patches of skin. L-phenylalanine may lead to some darkening or repigmentation of the whitened areas, particularly on the face. Although preliminary clinical information suggests that it is safe when used under appropriate medical guidance and supervision of a health care professional, more research is needed to assess potential side effects of this treatment approach.

Some clinical evidence suggests that phenylalanine may be effective as part of a comprehensive therapy for depression. Individuals have reported improvement in mood when taking phenylalanine. This is thought to be due to enhanced production of brain chemicals, such as dopamine and norepinephrine. More research is needed in this area.Dietary Sources:L-phenylalanine is found in most foods that contain protein such as beef, poultry, pork, fish, milk, yogurt, eggs, cheese, soy products (including soy protein isolate, soybean flour, and tofu), and certain nuts and seeds. The artificial sweetener aspartame is also high in phenylalanine.

What is Trans Resveratrol?

In nature, resveratrol exists in two different isomers,
Why Trans Resveratrol Is Better
Resveratrol is a phenolic compound that has been found to have strong antioxidant activity. Plants create resveratrol to protect themselves against the effects of poor growing conditions and severe weather. Resveratrol has been shown to reduce the oxidation of LDL cholesterol, total cholesterol and the risk of cardiovascular disease. Other recent studies on animals have shown resveratrol to increase athletic endurance and dramatically increase life-span.

trans- and cis. -these prefixes refer to the shape of the molecule. It is believed that trans-resveratrol is the biologically active of the two isomers, which is why we only label for this active "trans-resveratrol" molecule.

Name: S-Adenosyl-L-methionine(SAMe)Synonyms:

SAM-e is an amino acid derivative that has been clinically proven to benefit brain and joint function. SAMe is a molecule produced constantly by all living cells. It is a good nutrition for the liver,can prevent alcohol, drugs and the liver-cell injury; has remarkable preventive effects on chronic active hepatitis, and other factors caused liver injury,heart disease, cancer and so on.. SAMe has been found to be as effective as pharmaceutical treatments for arthritis and major depression as well. Found in all living cells, SAM-e is also called "activated" methionine (an essential amino acid) since it is formed by the combining of ATP with methionine. SAM-e has undergone dozens of trials involving thousands of patients.

Researchers studying the beneficial effects of SAM-e have indentified the following benefits :

(3S)-5'-[(3-Amino-3-carboxylatopropyl)methylsulphonio]-5'-deoxyadenosine; SAMJoint Strenght

SAM-e supports the production of healthy connective tissue through transulfuration. In this process, critical components of connective tissue, including glucosamine and the chondroitin sulfates, are sulfated by SAM-e.

Brain Metabolism:
SAM-e methylation reactions are involved in the synthesis of neurotransmitters such as L-dopa, dopamine and related hormones, epinephrine and phosphatidylcholine (a component of Lecithin).

Longevity Methylation of DNA appears to be important in the suppression of errors in DNA replication. Demethylation of DNA is considered a contributor to the aging process. Proper methylation through substances such as SAM-e positively influence longevity.

SAM-e metabolism supports the synthesis of glutathione (GSH) and glutathione-dependent enzymes (glutathione peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase), which are substances important for liver function.Dosage.

Take 400mg per day on an empty stomach, or as directed by your qualified health consultant.

Taurine Powder

Finally, taurine was shown to be of benefit in a study of 22 Canadian children with cystic fibrosis and documented steatorrhea. They were given taurine (30 mg/kg/day) and placebo during separate six-month periods. Severity of fat malabsorption was significantly reduced in most of the subjects, especially in those with the most severe steatorrhea. A more recent study, however, failed to note these benefits, but significant differences in the two study groups may account for this discrepancy. A second study by the Canadian group showed positive effects of taurine on fat absorption in cystic fibrosis patients. Again, those with the greatest malabsorption at baseline seemed to benefit the most.

Taurine is contraindicated in those hypersensitive to any component of a taurine-containing nutritional supplement.

PRECAUTIONSPregnant women and nursing mothers should avoid taurine supplements unless recommended by their physicians. Those with congestive heart failure should only use taurine under medical supervision.

No reports of adverse reactions.

In animal studies, taurine was found to ameliorate the pulmonary side effects (pulmonary fibrosis) of bleomycin.

Doses are variable and range from 500 mg to 3 grams daily.As always, we strongly advise you do your own research and more importantly consult your own medical professional before commencing any use of this or any other dietary supplement .This statement has not been evaluated by the FDA. This is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

In some older studies, taurine demonstrated some preliminary ability to suppress some epileptic seizures. Follow-up is needed.

Taurine has exerted some detoxifying effects in animal experiments. It helped prevent bleomycin-induced lung injury and fibrosis in mice. It also appeared to have protective effects, as measured by changes in memory and lipid peroxidation levels in the brain, in rats exposed to ozone. Additionally, it has inhibited ethanol-induced elevation of plasma acetaldehyde in other animal studies. In one of these, it prevented the development of ethanol-induced hypertension in rats.

it has lowered blood pressure in borderline hypertensive patients using 6 grams of taurine daily for seven days. Lipid-lowering effects have been seen in animals, but human data are few and contradictory. There is some preliminary evidence from one small study that 0.4 to 1.6 grams of taurine daily for eight days inhibited platelet aggregation in a dose-dependent manner. Supplementation with 1.5 grams of taurine daily decreased platelet aggregation in subjects with type 1 diabetes. Insulin sensitivity was significantly improved by taurine supplementation in a rat model of spontaneous type 2 diabetes. Serum cholesterol and triacylglycerol were decreased in the supplemented animals. Taurine was also effective in another animal model of insulin resistance.Taurine has demonstrated hypotensive effects in some animal studies. In humans.

The mechanism of taurine's putative antiseizure activity is unknown.

Following ingestion, taurine is absorbed from the small intestine via the beta-amino acid or taurine transport system, a sodium- and chloride-dependent carrier system that serves gamma-aminobutyric acid and beta-alanine, as well as taurine. This carrier system is located in the apical membrane of intestinal mucosa cells. Taurine is transported to the liver via the portal circulation, where much of it forms conjugates with bile acids. Taurocholate, the bile salt conjugate of taurine and cholic acid, is the principal conjugate formed via the action of the enzyme choloyl-CoA N-acyltransferase. The taurine conjugates are excreted via the biliary route. Taurine that is not conjugated in the liver is distributed via the systemic circulation to various tissues in the body. Taurine is not usually completely reabsorbed from the kidneys, and some fraction of an ingested dose of taurine is excreted in the urine.

Taurine may be helpful in some with congestive heart failure and hypertension. It has demonstrated some antiatherogenic effects in both animal and human studies. There is the suggestion, mostly from animal data, that taurine might improve glucose tolerance and protect against some toxins. Some older studies suggest it might have some antiseizure activity. There is preliminary evidence that it might be helpful in some with cystic fibrosis.

In a study of 24 subjects with congestive heart failure, administration of 2 grams of taurine, twice a day, resulted in clinical improvement in 19 patients. Roentgenographic data helped confirm the improvement. These positive results were subsequently confirmed in a double-blind, randomized, crossover, placebo-controlled study in which taurine was added to conventional treatment for a four-week period. Compared with placebo, taurine produced significant improvement as evaluated by a number of measures, including chest films. In still another study, supplemental taurine, but not coenzyme Q10, was said to have significant benefit in patients with congestive heart failure secondary to ischemic or idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. This was a double-blind study using 3 grams of taurine daily.

Cats who are deficient in taurine develop dilated cardiomyopathy and congestive heart failure. Taurine has an inotropic effect when given to these animals. Some studies suggest that taurine has an inotropic effect in humans with congestive heart failure. The mechanism of this possible effect is unclear. It is thought that taurine may modulate the calcium current.

Again in animals, but not in humans, taurine has been found to have antidiabetic activity. The mechanism of this effect is unclear. It is thought that taurine may decrease insulin resistance.

Some studies have shown decreased steatorrhea in cystic fibrosis patients receiving taurine. It is thought that the mechanism of this effect is taurine's stimulation of bile acid formation resulting in increased fat absorption in these individuals.

Taurine has been found to ameliorate bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis in hamsters and also to ameliorate the side effects of some nitrogen mustards. It is thought that the possible antioxidant and membrane-stabilizing activities of taurine may account for these detoxifying actions.

Taurine has been found to normalize blood pressure in spontaneous hypertensive rats, and there is some evidence from human studies that it also has hypotensive activity in hypertensive, but not normotensive, individuals. It is speculated that the hypotensive effect of taurine may result from the normalization of increased sympathetic activity in hypertensive individuals.

Taurine has been demonstrated to reduce cholesterol levels in animals, but results in humans have been contradictory. The hypocholesterolemic effect of taurine in animals is thought to be due, in large part, to the stimulation of bile acid synthesis and enhancement of cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase activity. Taurine has been found to have antiatherogenic activity in animals, but there is less evidence that it does in humans. The antiatherogenic activity of taurine in animals is thought to be due, in large part, to its hypocholesterolemic activity.

The major antioxidant activity of taurine derives from its ability to scavenge the reactive oxygen species hypochlorite, which is generated in neutrophils during respiratory-burst activity of these cells. Taurine reacts with excess hypochlorite produced in the process of phagocytosis to form the relatively harmless N-chlorotaurine. N-chlorotaurine is then reduced to taurine and chloride. This activity may protect against collateral tissue damage that can occur from the respiratory burst of neutrophils. Taurine may also suppress peroxidation of membrane lipoproteins by other reactive oxygen species. It is thought that this effect is not due to taurine's scavenging of these reactive oxygen species, but rather to taurine's membrane-stabilizing activity, which confers greater resistance to the membrane lipoproteins against lipid peroxidation.

Taurine is different from most biological amino acids in a few particulars. It is a sulfonic acid rather than a carboxylic acid; it is a beta-amino acid rather than an alpha-amino acid and it does not have a chiral center. Taurine is also known as 2-aminoethane sulfonic acid. Its molecular formula is C2H7NO3 S, and its molecular weight is 215.15 daltons.ACTIONSTaurine has antioxidant activity. It has putative hypocholesterolemic, hypotensive, antiatherogenic and detoxifying activities. It may also have steatorrhea-reducing activity in those with cystic fibrosis and has putative antidiabetic, inotropic and antiseizure activities.

The most understood role of taurine in humans is its involvement in the formation of taurine bile acid conjugates in the liver, which are essential for micelle formation and fat absorption. Taurine is involved in the pre-and post-natal development of the central nervous system and visual system, although the details of its involvement in these processes are unclear. Taurine also has antioxidant and membrane-stabilizing activities. Much remains to be learned about the role of taurine in human physiology.

Taurine is produced in the body from L-cysteine. The first reaction in the pathway is the formation of cysteine sulfinic acid. Cysteine sulfinic acid (CSA) is converted to hypotaurine via the enzyme CSA-decarboxylase, and taurine is formed from hypotaurine. Cats have low activity of CSA-decarboxylase. Dietary taurine mainly comes from animal food. Taurine is present in very low levels in plant foods. Taurine is found in seaweeds.

  • May helphuman infant formulas since the mid-1980s.
  • Makes muscles appear larger.
  • Maintains glucose uptake.
  • Boosts protein synthesis.
  • Improves anabolic processes.
  • Improves cell volumization potassium, calcium and magnesium..
  • Aids electrolyte balance and proper utilization of sodium, management of cholesterol levels.
  • Aids in the digestion of fat, soluble vitamins, and the from heart muscle.
  • Taurine is instrumental in preventing loss of potassium muscles and central nervous system.
  • Works as an ion and pH buffer in the heart, skeletal
  • Research of taurine was greatly stimulated by the finding that it is an essential nutrient for cats. Taurine deficiency in cats can result in a variety of clinical abnormalities, including central retinal degeneration, dilated cardiomyopathy and platelet function abnormalities. Shortly after the discovery that dietary taurine deficiency leads to retinal degeneration in cats, it was observed that infants who were fed formulas lacking taurine had lower plasma levels of this amino acid than did infants fed human milk. Further, it was discovered that children receiving total parenteral nutrition not containing taurine had abnormal electroretinograms, as well as low plasma taurine levels. Taurine has been added to most the body including the brain and nervous system. Some researchers hold that Taurine can be a beneficial dietary supplement for persons with bipolar disorder (manic depression)
  • twitches, and motor tics.
Taurine is a nonprotein amino acid. It is an end product of L-cysteine metabolism and the principal free intracellular amino acid in many tissues of humans and other animal species. Taurine is present in high amounts in the brain, retina, myocardium, skeletal and smooth muscle, platelets and neutrophils. It is classified as a conditionally essential amino acid because it is necessary to be supplied in the diet of infants for normal retinal and brain development.
  • May help control epileptic seizures, uncontrollable facial heart failure or cardiomyopathy.
  • Boosts cardiac output in those suffering from congestive
  • Taurine works synergistically with any form of Creatine. Taurine is an amino acid believed to play an important role in many areas of prevent cataracts.


L-valine is a branched-chain essential amino acid (BCAA) that has stimulant activity. It promotes muscle growth and tissue repair. It is a precursor in the penicillin biosynthetic pathway. Valine is one of three branched-chain amino acids (the others are leucine and isoleucine) that enhance energy, increase endurance, and aid in muscle tissue recovery and repair. This group also lowers elevated blood sugar levels and increases growth hormone production. Supplemental valine should always be combined with isoleucine and leucine at a respective milligram ratio of 2:1:2. It is an essential amino acid found in proteins; important for optimal growth in infants and for growth in children and nitrogen balance in adults. The lack of L-valine may influence the growth of body, cause neuropathic obstacle, anaemia. It has wide applications in the field of pharmaceutical and food industry.

Yohimbe 8% alkaloid (Yohimbine)


Corynanthe yohimbe yohimbineyohimbine hydrochlorideyohimbe bark extract.The range between an effective dose and a dangerous dose is very narrow; too large of a dosage can be harmful and toxic. This may also lead to precipitation of panic disorder type reactions.

More serious adverse effects may include seizures and renal failure. Yohimbine should not be consumed by anyone with liver, kidney, heart disease, or a psychological disorder.

Higher doses of oral yohimbine may create numerous side effects, such as rapid heart rate, high blood pressure, overstimulation, insomnia and/or sleeplessness. Some effects in rare cases were panic attacks, hallucinations, headaches, dizziness, and skin flushing.

However, the levels of yohimbine that are present in yohimbe bark extract are variable and often very low. Therefore, although yohimbe bark has been used traditionally to reduce male erectile dysfunction, there is not enough scientific evidence to form a definitive conclusion in this area.Adverse effectsYohimbine has significant side effects, such as anxiety reactions. According to the Mayo Clinic, yohimbine can be dangerous if used in excessive amounts.

The main active chemical present in yohimbe bark is yohimbine HCl (indole alkaloid), found in the bark of the Pausinystalia yohimbe tree.

are related, they are not interchangeable. , and , rubiaceae (Madder family). There are 31 other yohimbane alkaloids found in Yohimbe. In Africa, yohimbe has traditionally been used as an aphrodisiac. However, it is very important to note that while the terms ), familyIn veterinary medicine, yohimbine is used to reverse anesthesia from the drug xylazine in small and large animals.PharmacologyYohimbine has high affinity for the α2A-adrenergic, α2B-adrenergic, and α2C-adrenergic receptors, moderate affinity for the 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT1D, 5-HT2B, and D2 receptors, and weak affinity for the D3 receptor. Yohimbine also has unknown but significant affinity for the 5-HT2A receptor. Yohimbine behaves as an antagonist at all receptors except for the 5-HT1A, 5-HT1D, and 5-HT2A receptors, where it acts as a weak partial agonist. ProductionYohimbine is the principal alkaloid of the bark of the West African evergreen Pausinystalia yohimbePierre (formerly).

Yohimbine has been used to facilitate recall of traumatic memories in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Use of yohimbine outside therapeutic settings may not be appropriate for persons suffering from PTSD. According to one study, oral yohimbine supplementation may actuate significant fat loss in athletes..

Yohimbine has been shown to be effective in the reversal of sexual satiety and exhaustion in male rats. Yohimbine has also been shown to increase the volume of ejaculated semen in dogs, with the effect lasting at least five hours after administrationYohimbine has been shown to be effective in the treatment of orgasmic dysfunction in men. Other usesYohimbine hydrochloride has also been used for the treatment of sexual side effects caused by some antidepressants (SSRIs), female hyposexual disorder, as a blood pressure boosting agent in autonomic failure, xerostomia, and as a probe for noradrenergic activity.

It cannot be excluded that orally administered yohimbine can have a beneficial effect in some patients with ED. The conflicting results available may be attributed to differences in drug design, patient selection, and definitions of positive response.

Yohimbine Hydrochloride, USP—a standardized form of yohimbine—is a prescription medicine that has been used to treat erectile dysfunction. Controlled studies suggest that it is not always an effective treatment for impotence, and evidence of increased sex drive (libido) is anecdotal only.

AphrodisiacThe NIH states that yohimbine hydrochloride is the standardized form of yohimbine that is available as a prescription medicine in the United States, and has been shown in human studies to be effective in the treatment of male impotence is a tryptamine alkaloid and is the active chemical constituent of the medicinal herb Pausinystalia yohimbe (formerly Corynanthe yohimbe), also known as yohimbe or yohimbe bark. Yohimbine is a stimulant drug and purportedly has aphrodisiac qualities.

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