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Assists removal of ammonia from central nervous system.

Alpha-ketoglutaric (AKG) is an organic acid that is important for the proper metabolism of all essential amino acids and the transfer of cellular energy in the citric acid cycle. It is a precursor to glutamic acid, the non-essential amino acid involved in protein synthesis and the regulation of blood glucose levels. In combination with L-glutamate, AKG can reduce levels of ammonia formed in the brain, muscles and kidneys, as well as help balance the body’s nitrogen chemistry and prevent nitrogen excess in body tissues and fluids. Individuals with high protein intake, bacterial infections, or gastrointestinal dysbiosis may benefit from supplemental AKG to help balance ammonia levels and protect tissues.

Alpha-ketoglutaric acid (a-KG) is a naturally-occurring chemical, formed primarily as part of the citric acid cycle inside cells. One of its most important functions is to detoxify ammonia from tissues of the central nervous system. In the brain and central nervous system, alpha-keto combines with ammonia to form glutamic acid and then glutamine. Glutamine crosses the brain-blood barrier and transports the ammonia out of the brain. Alpha-ketoglutaric also scavenges nitrogen released by the catabolism of amino acids, thereby balancing the body’s nitrogen chemistry and preventing nitrogen overload in body tissues and fluids.

As a result of excessive protein ingestion or poor amino acid metabolism, excess nitrogen and ammonia can accumulate in cell tissue. Bacterial infections and intestinal dysbiosis can also elevate ammonia levels in the body. High levels of ammonia or nitrogen in the body can deplete the supply of alpha-keto, allowing ammonia to reach toxic levels. The consequences of excess ammonia (hyperammonemia) may include headaches (migraine), fatigue, irritability, nausea, and diarrhea. Ammonia can attack lipid membranes such as the myelin sheath of neurons. Chronically elevated ammonia in brain tissues can lead to mental confusion and decreased cognitive abilities.

Individuals with high protein intake, problems in nitrogen detoxification or intestinal dysbiosis may benefit from supplemental alpha-ketoglutaric as a central nervous system detoxifier.

Other conditions associated with elevated ammonia levels include:
  • Autism Spectrum disorders
  • Excess aluminum exposure
  • Magnesium deficiency
  • Manganese deficiency
  • Liver disease (cirrhosis)
  • Reyes syndrome
  • Urea cycle dysfunctions
  • Exposure to toxic nitrogen chemicals such as amines, hydrazines, ammonium compounds.
Other functions of alpha-ketoglutaric which may suffer as a result of depletion include:

Production of cellular energy via the chemical transfer of energy during the citric acid cycle. (Alpha-ketoglutaric has been found to be helpful in alleviating fatigue and increasing stamina.) Formation of carnitine, necessary for proper metabolism of fats. (Inadequate carnitine may result in elevated triglycerides.) Formation of a biologically active coenyzme form of vitamin B3.



The amino acid arginine is a powerful immune enhancer. It plays a role in such diverse body functions as circulation and sexual function. Ornithine has many of the same properties. Teaming these two powerhouses makes a safe, natural and effective supplement for immune system enhancement.

Arginine is synthesized in the liver and kidneys and is not normally considered to be an essential amino acid. However, in times of heightened catabolism and need--such as during extreme stress, trauma, injury, or infection--it becomes essential to the maintenance of optimal health.

Arginine plays a key role in the urea cycle, the metabolic pathway by which urea is created. Urea is used to dispose of excess nitrogen, which can be toxic if the body cannot excrete it fast enough. Arginine is converted to ornithine, which is then used to produce urea in the kidneys. A deficiency in arginine can impair the urea cycle, resulting in a build-up of urea precursors, and increased levels of ammonia in the plasma. In laboratory animals, arginine deficiency has been shown to result in renal complications; in humans, one characteristic of renal (kidney) failure is arginine deficiency. Arginine is also a precursor for nitric oxide, which plays an important role in immune function, neurotransmission, and platelet aggregation and adhesion.

Ornithine plays a key role in the urea cycle, and alpha-ketoglutarate plays a key role in another metabolic pathway--the Krebs cycle. Ornithine also stimulates the synthesis of RNA, DNA, and protein.

Ornithine has been demonstrated to be quite effective in promoting muscle repair and maintaining nitrogen balance after stresses such as trauma or surgery. Nitrogen balance is the ratio of nitrogen ingested (in the form of protein and amino acids) versus nitrogen excreted. In a normal, healthy adult, nitrogen balance should be zero. A negative nitrogen balance occurs when protein is being synthesized. This is a common result of surgery, injury, extreme stress, or excessive exercise. Extensive research in both laboratory animals and in humans indicates that supplementation with Ornithine can alleviate these negative effects.

Recommended dosage: 2gms to 5 gms per day on an empty stomach.

Caution: Use only as directed. Not for use by diabetics, borderline diabetics, pregnant or lactating women, cancer patients or persons who have had ocular or brain herpes. High dietary levels of arginine and/or ornithine may cause reactivation of latent herpes viruses in a few susceptible individuals. If this occurs, discontinue use. Persons with phenylketonuria (PKU) should not take this product.

L Arginine

As always, we strongly advise you do your own research and more importantly consult your own medical professional before commencing any use of this or any other dietary supplement .This statement has not been evaluated by the FDA. This is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any diseaseResearch studies document that nitric oxide from Arginine has a positive effect increasing muscle mass.

When test animals were given extra Arginine the animals sarcomeres, or muscle fibres, increase in diameter.

In addition to Nitric Oxide production increased muscle growth was observed.

Muscle fibre growth occurred at an accelerated rate.

L-Arginine is in most natural Sexual performance FormulasThere is abundant evidence that the endothelium plays a crucial role in the maintenance of vascular tone and structure. One of the major endothelium-derived vasoactive mediators is nitric oxide (NO), an endogenous messenger molecule formed in healthy vascular endothelium from the amino acid precursor L-arginine. Endothelial dysfunction is caused by various cardiovascular risk factors, metabolic diseases, and systemic or local inflammation. One mechanism that explains the occurrence of endothelial dysfunction is the presence of elevated blood levels of asymmetric dimethyl arginine (ADMA) an L-arginine analogue that inhibits NO formation and thereby can impair vascular function. Supplementation with L-arginine has been shown to restore vascular function and to improve the clinical symptoms of various diseases associated with vascular dysfunction.>Recently, dietary supplements containing Arginine have become popular due to Arginine's nitric oxide producing ability, its ability to scavenge free radicals, as well as its ability to signal muscle cells, support healthy cholesterol, and enhance fat metabolism. Arginine helps regulate salt levels in the body.

For this reason it should be of interest to competing bodybuilders, as retaining water under the skin can make one looks smooth, bloated and washed out. The nitrogen retaining abilities of Arginine are well-known within the bodybuilding and scientific communities. Arginine is also believed to be crucial for muscle growth due to its vasodilation abilities, as well as its ability to participate in protein synthesis. >Because Arginine is a precursor of nitric oxide [which is responsible for vasodilation it is often used to enhance the female sexual experience and for supporting healthy male sexual function.Arginine is necessary for the execution of many physiological processes. These physiological processes include the removal of toxic waste products from the body, and immune system defences.

Arginine increases muscle protein synthesis. L Arginine is an Essential amino acid that the body cannot make naturally. There is abundant evidence that the endothelium plays a crucial role in the maintenance of vascular tone and structure. One of the major endothelium-derived vasoactive mediators is nitric oxide (NO), an endogenous messenger molecule formed in healthy vascular endothelium from the amino acid precursor L-arginine. Endothelial dysfunction is caused by various cardiovascular risk factors, metabolic diseases, and systemic or local inflammation. One mechanism that explains the occurrence of endothelial dysfunction is the presence of elevated blood levels of asymmetric dimethyl arginine (ADMA) an L-arginine analogue that inhibits NO formation and thereby can impair vascular function. Supplementation with L-arginine has been shown to restore vascular function and to improve the clinical symptoms of various diseases associated with vascular dysfunction.

L – arginine alpha ketoglutamate bitatrate

It goes without saying that we don't produce "flavor of the month" supplements.. AAKG is no exception and stands atop an exciting new class of extremely powerful, drug-free Nitric Oxide (NO) enhancers. Potent, Arginine Alpha-Ketoglutarate increase strength, stamina, and vigor and speed your muscle growth and recovery. Nitric Oxide & the power of hemodilationNitric Oxide is the key molecule used by your body to transport oxygen, increase blood flow and deliver nutrients to skeletal muscle. This process is called "hemodilation". When hemodilation is accelerated, and best of all SUSTAINED as Nitro AKG does, you'll start to see some amazing things happen to your body. The positive changes begin in as little as one week... and by the one month mark, you could be seeing muscle fullness and hardness like never before from a drug-free compound. Also, look for increased strength and markedly improved stamina (and not of just the athletic variety). L-Arginine & Nitric OxideWhen it comes to isolated amino acids, it has long been known that very high dosages (typically, 10-15 grams) of L-Arginine taken on an empty stomach can boost short term Nitric Oxide and Growth Hormone (GH) levels. Unfortunately, L-Arginine is not very suitable for use as a long term NO elevation agent due to its inherent limitations. Even for GH release, the frequent high dosages required, unpleasant taste, stomach upset, etc. make following an effective regimen impractical, if not flat out impossible for most. The technological breakthrough of A-AKGEnter a new, state-of-the-art compound called A-AKGAnd the results?As alluded to earlier, when used as directed (easy to follow, detailed instructions are included) the overall positive effects of AAKG are extremely wide reaching in scope and often nothing short of phenomenal. Best of all, AAKG is free of the negative side-effects seen with anabolic steroids, clenbuterol, Viagra and other common drug based performance and physique enhancers.

DOSAGE: – 3gm in water / juice before bed
  • Creates a "Continuous Muscle Pump"
  • Signals Muscle Growth - Speeds Recovery
  • Increases Strength, Stamina & Sexual Vigor (Arginine Alpha-Ketoglutarate) which is not only extremely well tolerated by the body, but has such a vastly superior uptake and retention profile that it makes plain L-Arginine seem akin to a 1973 Ford Escort in comparison to a new, fully loaded Mustang..

L-Arginine L-Pyroglutamate (APG)

Hypersensitivity to any component of the preparation.

Children, pregnant women and nursing mothers should avoid taking arginine pyroglutamate supplements.

Arginine pyroglutamate is generally well tolerated. Minor gastrointestinal complaints have been noted.

There are no known reports of overdosage.

The usual recommended dose is 500 to 1000 milligrams daily. A 500 milligram dose delivers about 150 milligrams of L-arginine and about 350 milligrams of pyroglutamate.

The effects of piracetam are thought to be mediated through effects on membrane fluidity in the brain. Further, some pyrrolidone-nootropic agents appear to interact with metabotropic glutamate receptors. It is not known whether pyroglutamate has any of these activities.

SLittle is known in detail about the pharmacokinetics of arginine pyroglutamate. Arginine pyroglutamate gets absorbed across the small intestine and is transported by the portal circulation to the liver, where both L-arginine and pyroglutamate enter into various metabolic pathways. Some pyroglutamate appears to pass into the brain.

Arginine pyroglutamate may help improve cognition (e.g. verbal memory) in the aged, though more research is required to confirm this.

The primary claim made for this arginine salt of pyroglutamic acid relates to cognitive enhancement. It is asserted by some that this substance can help overcome memory defects induced by alcohol abuse and in those with some forms of dementia. Some use the supplement in Italy to treat alcoholism, senility and mental retardation. While such sweeping use is unwarranted based on current findings, there are data that suggest a cognitive-enhancing role for arginine pyroglutamate, though how significant a role is far from established. Some animal studies show that the substance has positive effects in cortical and cholinergic mechanisms and that it has cognition-enhancing properties. And in one double-blind study of aged human subjects, verbal memory was said to be improved in those taking arginine pyroglutamate compared with controls who received placebo.


Arginine pyroglutamate is reputed to have cognition-enhancing activity. The activity is attributed to pyroglutamate.

Since the action of arginine pyroglutamate is unclear, its mechanism of action is entirely speculative. However, pyroglutamate is structurally related to the drug piracetam, and more is known about piracetam's activity. Piracetam belongs to a class of drugs known as nootropics. The term "nootropic," from the Greek, means "acting on the mind." Piracetam, like pyroglutamate, is a pyrrolidone. Piracetam and related nootropics facilitate learning and memory in animal models, although human studies give mixed results except perhaps in dyslexia.

Arginine pyroglutamate, which is comprised of the amino acid L-arginine and the imino acid pyroglutamate, is a water-soluble substance.

Apg as the focus of world-wide attention in 1981 when Italian researcher A. Isidori, M.D., and his colleagues of the University of Rome determined that a combination of 1200 milligrams L-Lysine and 1200 milligrams L-Arginine L-Pyroglutamate when given orally to a group of 15 male volunteers between the ages of 15 and 20 was more than 10 times more effective at increasing blood levels human growth hormone than taking only the amino acid L-Arginine by itself (yielding a average net HGH increase of more than 700%). According to these researchers, "we could demonstrate that the association of the two amino acids does result in the release of biologically active HGH able to affect peripheral cellular receptors and thus cell growth in general. DESCRIPTION:
Arginine pyroglutamate is the L-arginine salt of pyroglutamic acid. It is also known as pirglutargine and arginine pidolate. Arginine pyroglutamate is a delivery form of pyroglutamate. Pyroglutamate is formed in the body by the cyclization of the amino acid glutamic acid and is found naturally in plant and animal products, including the brain. Pyroglutamate is also known as 2-oxo-pyrrolidone carboxylic acid or PCA and 5-oxoproline. Pyroglutamate is an intermediate of the gamma-glutamyl cycle of glutathione synthesis and degradation.


B.C.A.A ‘s are amino acid and are not only essential amino acids but is also a branched-chain found in high concentration in the muscles. l BCAA's are L-Valine ,l-leucine and L-Isoleucine.

B.C.A.A ‘s can not be made by the body, and must be acquired through food or dietary supplements.What does it do and what scientific studies give evidence to support this?

It has a stimulating effect and is needed for muscle metabolism, repair and growth of tissue and maintaining the nitrogen balance in the body.

Since it is a branched-chain amino acid, it can be used as an energy source in the muscles, and in doing so preserves the use of glucose.Who needs it and what are some symptoms of deficiency?B.C.A.A,s are essential amino acids. Therefore, everyone needs BCAA’s to maintain basic health.How much should be taken? Are there any side effects?BCAA’s should be dosed at two parts L-Valine for every two parts L-Leucine and for every one part of L-Isoleucine. This product takes the guess work out and is ready to go .RDA to 5gm per day.

No side effects have been reported, BCAA is generally considered to be safe for healthy persons.

Consult your physician before using any dietary supplement.


With literally hundreds of different supplements available and so many that are based on bogus claims and ridiculous hype, it's a challenge to find even one that delivers results. If you've rummaged through the garbage of the supplement scrap heap, you know how difficult it is to find solid science or real-world proof. Beta-alanine.

The science behind beta-alanine makes sense and it works. In reading this article, you will understand how beta-alanine works. You will also learn how to maximize its use and how it can help you safely work out much harder and longer. Used properly, beta-alanine can take your training and results to new levels, helping you set personal records and add lean mass. First lets start with some basic background information on beta-alanine.

is an exception. This supplement actually lives up to its claim: beta-alanine efficacy is backed by major university, peer-reviewed studies performed on humans, not the typical cell or rat studies upon which many supplement manufacturers generally base claims. Background On Beta-Alanine.

Although only recently brought to the forefront, beta-alanine was discovered over 100 years ago. Also known as 3-aminopropanoic acid, it is a non-essential amino acid and is the only naturally occurring beta-amino acid. Not to be confused with alanine, beta- alanine is classified as a non-proteinogenic amino acid as it is not used in the building of proteins.

The greatest natural dietary sources of beta-alanine are believed to be obtained through ingesting the beta-alanine containing dipeptides: carnosine, anserine and balenine, rather than directly ingesting beta-alanine. These dipeptides are commonly found in protein rich foods such as chicken, beef, pork and fish.

However, obtaining beta-alanine through these dipeptides is not the only way, as our bodies can synthesize it in the liver from the catabolism of pyrimidine nucleotides which are broken down into uracil and thymine and then metabolized into beta-alanine and B-aminoisobutyrate. Of course, it can also be ingested through direct supplementation which is the focus of this article.

Recently, researchers began studying beta-alanine and examining its effects on exercise performance and lean body mass. We owe a great deal of credit and respect to the scientists who are in the trenches doing the work and publishing the research on beta-alanine.

If it wasn't for them, great supplements like beta-alanine and creatine might never have seen the light of day. Their ongoing research has revealed how to properly use these compounds and how to safely and effectively maximize their benefits.

One of the key scientists pioneering the performance research on beta-alanine is Dr. Roger Harris. His name may or may not sound familiar, but it should, as he is the same man that brought creatine to the bodybuilding world with his groundbreaking study in 1992.

It looks like the good doctor has found another juggernaut of a supplement in beta-alanine. However, he is not alone. In the last two years, highly respected research scientist Dr. Jeffrey Stout has been in a frenzy publishing and compiling research on beta-alanine and doesn't look to be slowing down any time soon. Other notable researchers who have been publishing research on beta-alanine include Dr. Tallon, Dr. Hill and Dr. Kim.

How Can Beta-Alanine Benefit Me?

Below is a list of the benefits of beta-alanine. But before we go on to explain how beta-alanine works, you must first understand what's going on in our body's during exercise that limits our gains and muscular performance.

Benefits of Beta-Alanine as supported by Scientific Studies:

  • Boosts explosive muscular strength and power output.
  • Increases muscle mass.
  • Boosts muscular anaerobic endurance.
  • Increases aerobic endurance.
  • Increases exercise capacity so you can train harder and longer. What Stops Us From Reaching Our Full Potential In Making Strength, Endurance And Muscle Mass Gains.
  • When we exercise, especially when it's high intensity exercise, our bodies accumulate a large amount of hydrogen ions (H+), causing our muscles' pH to drop (become more acidic). This process is occurring whether you feel a burn or not.
The breakdown of ATP and the subsequent rise in H+ concentrations occur in all of our energy systems but H+ buildup is most prevalent in an energy system called glycolysis, which also produces lactic acid. At physiological pH, lactic acid dissociates H+ and is the primary source of released H+ ions during exercise, causing pH to drop.

It is the released H+ from lactic acid that causes muscular performance problems, not the leftover lactate ions as many incorrectly believe. While lactic acid is the primary source of released H+, it is not the only source. H+ ions are also being released at a rapid rate when you break down the high energy compound ATP during exercise. With the presence of many sources during energy production releasing H+, pH drops quickly.

As our muscles pH quickly drops, so does their ability to contract forcibly and maintain a high level of performance throughout your workout session. Not being able to perform and maintain forceful muscular contractions and push your body to the limit during your workout session, seriously hampers your ability to maximally overload your muscles and force new muscle gains.

In a nutshell, H+ causes your muscles pH to drop, in turn decreasing your strength and causing you to fatigue faster. These limitations stop you from adequately overloading your muscles and forcing NEW muscle gains. Strength, Endurance And Muscle Mass?

To understand how beta-alanine works to fight the drop in pH within our muscle, you must first understand how carnosine works. The reason being is, beta-alanine's performance benefits are not direct but realized through its ability to boost the synthesis of carnosine. Background On Carnosine.

The Russian scientist Gulewitsch was the first to identify carnosine in 1900. Eleven years later, he would discover and identify its constituent amino acids, beta-alanine and histidine. Seven years later, Barger and Tutin and Baumann and Ingvaldsen confirmed Gulewitsch's findings. However, it wasn't until 1938 that the first research on carnosine and its effects on muscle buffering were published.

Carnosine is a naturally occurring di-peptide that is found in both type 1 and type 2 muscle fibers, but is in significantly higher concentrations in type 2 fibers. Type 2 muscle fibers are primarily used in high intensity strength workouts and are most responsive to muscular growth.

How Does Carnosine Work?

There are a handful of ways carnosine is thought to impact performance but its most studied function, and the focus of this article, is its role as an intracellular buffer. Carnosine helps stabilize muscular pH by soaking up hydrogen ions (H+) that are released at an accelerated rate during exercise.

Our bodies work to keep our pH in balance by utilizing various buffering systems. Buffers largely work by soaking up H+ to maintain optimal pH balance, which we need to function most effectively. As mentioned above, our muscles function best in a specific pH range. When pH drops below that range, so does muscular performance. By helping to keep us in a more optimal pH range, our muscles can continue to contract forcibly for a longer time.

There are a handful of buffering systems that work in our bodies. Some maintain pH in extra cellular fluids (ECF) outside of the cell, while others perform their duties in intracellular fluids (ICF) inside the cell and some perform in both.

Our focus in this article is on exercise performance and, as mentioned above, the primary source of H+ released during exercise is from lactic acid and ATP breakdown. Take a guess where this breakdown and release of H+ is occurring?

If you guessed inside our muscles or intracellular, you would be correct. As a result, the first line of defense in absorbing the H+ is going to be the cell from intracellular buffers such as carnosine, not from extra cellular buffers.

Aside from carnosine being just where we need it, buffering H+ inside our cells, it has additional, unique attributes that make it really shine. Carnosine is unique; in that, other natural buffering systems our bodies use are also used in many other cellular reactions aside from buffering, watering down much of their buffering abilities.

However, what makes carnosine really exciting, is that by supplementing with extra beta-alanine, we can specifically and dramatically increase carnosine levels. How much, you ask?

Researchers have shown that when supplementing with beta-alanine for just 4 weeks, we can increase our carnosine concentration by 42-65%. Longer beta-alanine studies going up to 10-12 weeks, show carnosine concentrations increased up to 80%. This is a tremendous increase in an already powerful intracellular buffer.

It is this large increase in buffering capacity within our muscles that is largely responsible for the strength, lean body mass, power and muscular endurance gains that researchers are seeing from beta-alanine studies. Summary:By boosting carnosine concentrations, with beta-alanine, our type 2 muscle fibers can soak up more H+ and stay in an optimal pH range. By keeping our type 2 muscle fibers in an optimal pH range, they are better able to maintain maximal strength and endurance throughout your workout session and bring on new muscle gains Dosage and Use :The best time to take Beta-Alanine is before your workout and if you only take 500mg (.5gm daily then that is definitely the time you want to take it. If you don’t workout everyday, you should still take at least one capsule sometime during the day. If you are taking more than 500mg daily, as in a 15 week cycle, then spread out the capsules you take throughout the day as much as possible, with one dosage always being before your workout, if you workout on that day.


Info What is it and where does it come from?

CLA is research proven to build muscle, reduce body fat, and induce an optimum cellular environment for improved health!

CLA occurs naturally in foods such as milk, cheese, beef, and lamb as well as many processed foods. One processed food in particular that's high in CLA is Cheez Wiz. But getting enough CLA from your diet for the preferred benefit would require considerable intake of these types of foods. This is not only impractical, but would also have a seriously negative impact on your metabolism due to the high caloric penalty you would pay.

Fatty Acid That Helps You Lose Fat.

Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA), is a naturally occurring free fatty acid found mainly in meat and dairy products, in small amounts. CLA was discovered by accident in 1978 by Michael W. Pariza at the University of Wisconsin while looking for mutagen formations in meat during cooking. What does it do and what scientific studies give evidence to support this?Since this research has surfaced, a more economical and efficient way to get the required CLA has been devised. Through advanced lipid technology, a CLA synthesizing process allows for precision intake through premeasured softgel capsules. This allows for precise CLA intake at determined time intervals without the high calorie food consumption. Not only has CLA been shown to increase muscle mass while reducing body fat, studies have also shown remarkable anti-catabolic, antioxidant, and immune enhancement benefits. All this from a structured lipid. A designer fat if you would.

For many years, performance nutrition experts basically dismissed fats, assuming they didn't have any useful role in nutrition. Instead, experts focused on the protein-sparing and energy-producing effects of carbohydrates, and studied how amino acids and various proteins might affect nitrogen retention, anabolism, and catabolism. Perhaps "inquiring minds" were influenced by the mass media's "all-fat-is-bad" campaign. But now the scales are tipping toward the contrary. Nutritional geniuses like The Zone author, Dr. Barry Sears have shown us how fatty acids are not only essential for proper health but also how the proper use of such compounds may have numerous positive effects. Dr. Sears is certain that fatty acids directly influence the body's growth-promoting hormones.

Although all the intricacies of CLA are not fully understood, it is widely accepted in the research community that CLA counterbalances the negative effects of linoleic acid and regulates fat and protein metabolism in animals. Pariza, director of the Food Research Institute at the University of Wisconsin said, "A growing body of data indicates that CLA is a newly recognized nutrient that functions to regulate energy retention and metabolism." CLA can best be described as a Growth Factor.

Food intake efficiency! CLA has been shown in animal studies to increase growth rate through increased feed efficiency. In controlled studies, animals that had their diets supplemented with CLA increased their body protein (muscle tissue) while at the same time, had a significant decrease in body fat. This all occurred in the CLA supplemented animals while their food intake was decreased. Their lean mass increased even though they were eating less! This indicates that CLA increases feed efficiency and also points to a potent nutrient repartitioning effect.

This significant change in body composition can also be attributed in part to CLA's effect on immune function. CLA has been shown to inhibit the lean tissue wasting caused by high levels of these cytokines.

Actual human studies are on the way with anticipation of similar outcomes. CLA may be the most significant bodybuilding nutrient discovered in this decade. With anti-catabolic effects rivaling even the strongest pharmaceutical compounds, CLA is a naturally occurring nutrient with the ability to help you pack on lean muscle, reduce body fat and at the same time possesses health promoting properties. Who needs it and what are some symptoms of deficiency?

To the athlete looking to add more muscle and drop body fat, CLA is a unique discovery that will make accomplishing this feat easier and faster, all the while having positive effects on immune function and antioxidant status. How much should be taken? Are there any side effects?

CLA is typically found in capsules or softgels between potencies between 600mg and 1000mg. All preliminary evidence shows that CLA is nontoxic and safe at recommended dosages. While this is powder RDA’s remain the same .

Collagen Supplement HCP

Over the years, collagen and HCP are becoming more often used in a variety of ways in the fields of aesthetics and medicine.

As you age, collagen levels decrease and break down within the skin surface producing looser and less elastic skin. You can see wrinkles and experience the "flabby skin" syndrome. In the past, synthesized or natural collagen has built a reputation as an anti-aging skin improver. Included in creams and lotions you apply it externally, in topical form, as a means of reducing wrinkles, plumping up thinning skin and providing you with a fresh, young look. It is highly recommended in this area of beautification.

Collagen supplements may improve the undesired appearance caused by collagen depletion with age. Recently, companies began offering ingestible collagen supplements that may be absorbed by the body. The collagen molecule historically has been considered too large to be absorbed but new advances have been noted in making collagen bioavailable. You can always also inject collagen. Lip injections puff up lips.

Europe has been using HCP for decades. They use collagen as both a dietary supplement and, in some cases, as an natural option for joint and bone health Research in Germany and Czechoslovakia found some preliminary evidence to support the ability of daily intake of HCP to decrease joint stiffness. Another small scientific study showed HCP did suppress bone decomposition in women with osteoporosis .Other evidence suggests that HCP may help athletes recover faster from intense exercise training or sports injuries.

Overall, research seems to indicate HCP supports healthy bones and cartilage, and encourages strong tissue that can help prevent sprains or strains. On the one hand, HCP is a "poor" protein source. It is low in the sulfur containing amino acids. On the other hand, however, HCP is a densely rich source of the primary amino acids that make up the collagen protein. These include glycine, proline and lysine as well as the two unusual amino acids: hydroxyproline, and hydroxyl sine. Certain scientists believe, HCP, as a concentrated source, facilitates nourishment of tissues such as cartilage, bones, tendons, ligaments and skin - the body's collagen-containing tissues.

A further point in collagen's favor is its price. HCP is less expensive than many joint-support supplements. This makes it more accessible. This is good news for the various health agencies. They say more and more people are at risk of developing this osteoporosis and osteoarthritis. Figures are continuing to climb. HCP can help reduce the risk and do so for people from all economic levels.

Although collagen primarily finds itself touted as a beauty aid, there are now studies showing HCP can be useful in promoting joint health, supporting cartilage and bones and helping athletes recover faster.

While there are no defined RDA’s and no negative effects associated with overdose or contraindications . A daily dosages of 3 to 5 grams dissolved in water or in capsule form should be basis for your digestive tolerance .Collagen is a structural and fibrous protein occurring naturally within the body. It makes up at least 75 percent of your skin. Collagen feeds and supports skin, bones, teeth, blood vessels and such connective tissue as cartilage, tendons, and ligaments. It supports the quick healing of wounds and keeping the skin soft and fresh in appearance. Hydrolyzed collagen Protein (HCP) or collagen hydrolysate, is simply a modified form of collagen.

Creatine Monohydrate

What is creatine?Visit any health food store or browse through a sports magazine and you'll probably come across creatine and, in particular, creatine supplements. But what is it and what does it do?

Creatine is produced naturally by the body and helps to improve muscles' performance during exercise. This improvement in performance should allow you to train at higher levels for certain sports and gain muscle.

Foods such as meat and fish provide much of the body's creatine and the rest is made in the body by the liver, kidneys and pancreas. It is stored in the muscles as phosphocreatine (you may find it referred to as PC) contributing to the body's energy stores used during intense exercise.Why take creatine supplements?Increasing the muscle stores of phosphocreatine by taking a creatine supplement theoretically improves the ability to maintain power output during intensive exercise. It is also thought to aid recovery between short bursts of activity. This effect could benefit your training program and provide an important edge when competing.

Taking creatine supplements can increase your muscle stores of phosphocreatine by roughly 20 per cent on average. However, the exact increase can vary depending on the individual - the range is somewhere between 10 per cent and 40 per cent.

Increasing your muscle stores of creatine is particularly beneficial if you are involved in sports that involve short bursts of intense exercise. It can also help you maintain higher training volumes.Creatine and different types of physical performanceEvidence suggests that creatine supplementation is probably more useful for those sports whose activities require a good anaerobic performance.2 such activities include weight lifting, sprinting, football and rugby. There have been many studies to examine its effect in this area and over half of these have shown quite positive outcomes. Therefore, for those athletes whose sport requires strength combined with intense activity, this supplement could help.

However, for sports requiring mainly aerobic performance there is less evidence that creatine supplementation is helpful. So, for the endurance athletes - such as runners, cyclists and long distance swimmers - the case is not so strong. Nevertheless, a few studies have shown some improvement in performance.3 For example, a study at Louisiana State University found that creatine supplements delayed the onset of muscle fatigue in endurance athletes by boosting their lactate thresholds.4 So, for some aerobic sports, it may be useful.Will taking creatine supplements alter my body weight or body composition?Studies have shown that creatine supplementation does increase body weight and also has an effect on body composition.5,6 In particular it increases muscle mass and this effect has been found in both male and female athletes. Weight increases of up to 4kg have been reported after a period of six weeks with creatine supplementation.

It is thought that this weight gain occurs because increases in the concentration of creatine in the muscles has the effect of drawing water into the muscle cells, thus increasing cell volume. This increase in volume acts as an anabolic signal which helps to reduce protein breakdown and improves the body's usage of protein. The end result is an increase in lean body tissue.What's the best way to supplement the diet with creatine?The most extensively used form of supplement is creatine monohydrate. It is a white powder which is almost tasteless and dissolves in water. Ideally, creatine should be taken together with some carbohydrate-rich food. This is because the carbohydrate increases the concentration of insulin in the blood stream which, in turn, helps the creatine to be absorbed by the muscle cells. A snack containing between 30g to 40g of carbohydrate is ideal for this purpose. For example, a banana, two thick slices of whole meal bread, or a bowl of muesli.

There are other forms of creatine. For example, creatine phosphate and creatine citrate. However, these are not absorbed any more readily and are also more expensive.How much should I take?As far as the dosage of creatine is concerned, there are a number of different recommendations. There are no Recommended Daily Amounts (RDAs) for creatine as such. However, most manufacturers suggest starting off with a loading dose of about 20g per day for five days. After this initial period, follow up with a "maintenance" dose of around 2g per day on an ongoing basis. There is no benefit in taking a higher dose since muscles have a maximum storage capacity and any excess is simply lost from the body.Is creatine supplementation safe and are there any side effects?Studies so far have not highlighted any problems.7,8 If you are training and taking creatine supplements you will almost certainly gain weight, particularly lean body mass. Creatine supplementation is not illegal and is allowed by the International Olympic Committee.

Key points:
  • Creatine monohydrate is the most widely used form of creatine supplement
  • Creatine is made up of three amino acids and is stored as phosphocreatine in muscles
  • Creatine delays muscle fatigue by "buffering" the build up of lactic acid in the muscles
  • It speeds up recovery between bouts of high-intensity physical activity
  • It extends maximal muscle power output
  • It increases total body mass - particularly lean muscle tissue
  • May be especially beneficial to athletes involved in high-intensity activities particularly where interval training and strength training are involved i.e. anaerobic activities
  • There is a small amount of evidence that it may also help athletes involved in mainly aerobic activities - for example endurance running and cycling - although the evidence is not strong.
there are a variety of recommendations, however the most widely used is a loading dose of 20g per day for five days, followed by a maintenance dose of 2g per day. Doses in excess of this are of no benefit as muscle can only store a certain amount and any excess is removed from the body · Side-effects - there appear to be no proven side-effects Creatine supplementation is allowed in sport by the International Olympic Committee (2002) Why do some athletes use it?Some athletes say that creatine monohydrate helps build muscle mass and improves performance and delays muscle fatigue during short-duration, high-intensity exercise, such as sprinting or weight lifting.

During loading phase, mix one (1) rounded teaspoon (5g) into 8oz of water or non-acidic juice, (4) times daily for (3) days. During maintenance phase, mix one (1) rounded teaspoon (5g) into 8oz of water or non-acidic juice, 2 times daily. (Once 30 min. before workout, once 30 min. after workout) As always, we strongly advise you do your own research and more importantly consult your own medical professional before commencing any use of this or any other dietary supplement .This statement has not been evaluated by the FDA. This is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

Creatine Ethyl Ester Info

What is it and where does it come from?Creatine Ethyl Ester HCL (CEE) is creatine monohydrate with an ester attached. Esters are organic compounds that are formed by esterification - the reaction of carboxylic acid and alcohols. What does it do and what scientific studies give evidence to support this?Regular creatine monohydrate has been shown effective at increasing lean muscle mass muscle strength and athletic performance.

However, regular creatine monohydrate is absorbed poorly by the body - and its effectiveness is dependant upon the cells ability to absorb it. The poor absorption rate of regular creatine monohydrate requires the creatine user to ingest large dosages of creatine to achieve desired effect.

Because creatine draws water to the cell, and because most ingested creatine monohydrate is not absorbed, unabsorbed creatine will sit outside of the target cell with the water, and this will result in the "creatine bloat."

Long-term clinical studies have proven that creatine monohydrate is safe for use by persons free of medical complication, but why would you want to ingest more creatine monohydrate than you have to simply because your creatine is inefficient?

Creatine ethyl ester is creatine monohydrate with an ester attached. The attachment of an ester is significant, because esters are found in the fat tissue of animals. But, why is this important? What role does this have in the absorption of creatine?

All substances that you put into your body will affect its operation. There are three ways that substances can affect a cells operation. They are: 1. Ligand binding to protein receptor sites.

Secondary messenger / metabotropic systems

Passive permeation of the cell wall via lipids

When a substance enters the body and affects the bodies operation, it is known as a ligand. The soma and dendrites of the cell have protein receptor sites to which ligands can bind. The process of a ligand binding with a receptor site is akin to a lock and key: only keys of a certain shape work with certain locks. When they work and cause the cells stimulation they are called agonists. When they block the cell from functioning they are called antagonists.

When a ligand binds with the receptor site of a target cell, the cell, in the simplest of cases, changes its shape, opens up its ion channels and changes its function. In so-called "secondary messenger" or metabotropic cells, the ligand binds with the receptor site and an internal protein known as a g-protein is released. This released protein then binds to an internal site inside of the cell, and then the cell changes its behavior by opening its ion channels. Cells that operate in this way are known as metabotropic cells because their operation requires metabolic energy.

Passive permeation is a process that describes the diffusion of a substance across a cell membrane through the use of lipids as transport mechanisms. Because no "work" is being done by the cell in this model, this model is called passive permeation.

Creatine monohydrate utilizes lipids to permeate the cell wall and enter the cell. Because of this, the esterification of creatine, and the presence of esters in animal fat tissue, becomes significant.

Creatine monohydrate is semi-lipopholic. This means that it inefficiently uses fat as a transport mechanism. The esterification of substances will increase their lipopholic abilities, and thus esterified creatine will use fat more efficiently to permeate the cell wall and exert its effects upon cellular function than its unesterified creatine monohydrate counterpart.

This means, simply, that not only will dosage requirements be lower, but the absorption of esterified creatine will be increased and the infamous "creatine bloat" will be eliminated! Who needs it and what are some symptoms of deficiency?Creatine Ethyl Ester can benefit persons of all ages, as it displays the same benefits as regular creatine monohydrate. Is Creatine Ethyl Ester real?Much controversy has been generated over creatine ethyl ester. Companies and individuals with a financial interest in promoting creatine monohydrate products have attempted to discredit creatine ethyl ester. Some companies have even gone so far as to commission laboratory reports that show that creatine ethyl ester is not real.

COA's - certificates of analysis - proving that creatine ethyl ester is real. These are included so that you, the consumer, can make up your own mind - so that you can base your choices upon the power of information.

The esterification of creatine is chemically possible and not hard to conceive. Those who claim that CEE is fake are denying obvious science and are cheating the consumer. How much should be taken? Are there any side effects?2 – 5 gms 20 minutes before exercise.

No side effects have been reported in scientific literature.


D-ribose might be unfamiliar to you, but is an entirely natural compound made by your body throughout life. Technically, D-ribose a pentose sugar, or a 5-carbon sugar (more familiar sugars like glucose and fructose have 6 carbon atoms). As part of RNA and DNA, D-ribose is needed for cell maintenance and growth. But the exciting thing about D-ribose is that it initiates the production of the critical energy molecule ATP. ATP is the primary energy source for cells but is rapidly depleted in muscle tissue by strenuous exercise. Since, creatine helps to recharge spent ATP (known as ADP) and D-ribose initiates the production of ATP, combining creatine with D-ribose is a great way to support robust cellular energy levels. D-ribose powder is becoming a core supplement for those looking to maximize their energy levels in a healthy way, without the drawbacks of stimulant ingredients. D-ribose is available in powder; most people use the powder. D-ribose is a neutral tasting, slightly sweet granular powder that's very easy to take 'straight', or can be mixed into other liquids. Most people take D-ribose directly, first thing in the morning with a glass on water and a second dose later in the day. A serving of D-ribose is 5 grams, and most people take 5-20 grams daily.

GABA amino acid

GABA stands for gamma-aminobutyric acid, is the product of a biochemical decarboxylation reaction of glutamic acid by the vitamin pyridoxal, as well as from decarboxylase (GAD).GABA is required forGABA is required as an inhibitory neurotransmitter to block the transmission of an impulse from one cell to another in the central nervous system, which prevents over-firing of the nerve cells.

It is also used for brain metabolism and to treat both epilepsy and hypertension where it is thought to induce tranquility in individuals who have a high activity of manic behavior and acute agitation.

In combination with inositol and nicotinamide it helps with blocking anxiety and stress related impulses from reaching the motor centers of the brain.

Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid can be used to calm a person, much like tranquilizers, but without the possibility of addiction.Deficiency of GABAIt has been suggested that a shortage of GABA may cause panic attacks, since an intake of tranquilizers can increase the level of GABA in the body. GABA may also be effective in treating PMS in women.DosageThe dosage listed is .5gm , but be aware that this dosage is the minimum that you require per day, to ward off serious deficiency of this particular nutrient. In the therapeutic use of this nutrient, the dosage is usually increased considerably, but the toxicity level must be kept in mind.

Dosage has not been established, but it is interesting to note that some research suggests that the supplement Kava (kava is a herbal root used as a supplement) causes more GABA receptors to form in the brain. Toxicity and symptoms of high intakeToxic levels have not been established, but very high intake of GABA may cause anxiety, tingling of extremities, shortness of breath as well as a numb feeling around the mouth.Other interesting pointsIt is sometimes used as sexual a stimulant because of its relaxing capabilities, as well as with prostate problems, since it also assists with the release of sex hormones.


L-glutamine is the most prevalent amino acid in the blood. Human cells readily manufacture L-glutamine, and under normal circumstances, dietary intake and production of L-glutamine is sufficient. However, in times of stress or increased energy output, the body's tissues need more L-glutamine than usual, making supplementation important.

Some studies suggest that L-glutamine may boost the immune system. Scientists think that taking L-glutamine orally may enhance the activity of infection-fighting white blood cells and other agents. It may also decrease the permeability of the intestines, thus making it harder for invaders to attack the body.

One of L-glutamine’s most important functions involves the support of cellular energy, growth and repair. L-glutamine levels have been found to be decreased in endurance athletes who train too often and at high intensity. In fact, these athletes tend to have a higher incidence of infectious diseases and allergies, and have been noted to have swollen lymph nodes and experience slower wound healing. Athletes undergoing a strenuous workout schedule may be able to reduce the risk of infections by supplementing with L-glutamine.What Is L-Glutamine?How To Use It

Due to its anti-catabolic properties and the fact that it accelerates glycogen synthesis after a workout, glutamine is best taken 20-30 minutes after a workout. On days that you don't workout, just take it with your last meal of the day. While there is much debate amongst experts as far as dosage is concerned, I always like to remain on the conservative side. Therefore, I feel that 3-5 grams is a sufficient dosage to start with and as your stomach gets used to it you can increase it to as much as 10-15 grams.

As far as side effects , slight stomach discomfort during the first week of use (straight powder form). Other than that, no other side effects and I have not found any literature that links its use to anything bad.

Recommend that you start with a low dosage (such as only 3 grams a day) in order to assess your tolerance. From there you can build up to 10-15 grams split in 2-3 servings per day (1 in the morning, 1 after the workout and another one before bed). I would reserve the highest dosage schedule for periods of extremely hard training such as pre-contest training.

By looking at the effects that this supplement can provide you with, along with the fact that these days it can be purchased for a very cheap price, we wonder why more athletes don't use it. This is especially important during dieting, as a way to protect the muscle from being cannibalized by the effects of cortisol.As always, we strongly advise you do your own research and more importantly consult your own medical professional before commencing any use of this or any other dietary supplement .This statement has not been evaluated by the FDA. This is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease Side Effects DIRECTIONS: As a dietary supplement, mix one (1) rounded teaspoon (5g) into 8oz of water or your favorite beverage once thirty (30) minutes before training and once thirty (30) minutes after training. If you are not training/working out just take one (1) rounded teaspoon (5g) a day.

L-Glutamine the most abundant amino acid in muscle cells. It is released from the muscle during times of stress (such as hard weight training workouts) and dieting. This amino acid not only has been shown to be a great anti-catabolic agent (protects the muscle from the catabolic activities of the hormone cortisol), to be a contributor to muscle cell volume, and to have immune system enhancing properties but also to help in the following ways:
  • Regulation of protein synthesis (this is one of the ways in which steroids exert their muscle building effects).
  • Accelerating glycogen synthesis after a workout.
  • Sparing the use of the glycogen stored in the muscle cell (recall that the glycogen stored in the muscle cell is what gives the cell the healthy volume and firmness that you seek).Faster recuperation from weight training workouts.


Acetyl L Carnitine One of the key uses of Acetyl l Carnitine supplement is for fatty acid oxidation helping users burn unwanted body fat. Fatty acids are one the key energy sources the body uses and oxidation is the process by which they're broken down to create energy. The fatty acids cannot penetrate the inner mitochondria membrane (where they are burned for energy), and the key role for L-Carnitine is to transport fatty acids across the mitochondria membrane to allow for oxidation of the fats. non ac enim.


Glycine is a protein amino acid found in the protein of all life forms. It is the simplest amino acid in the body and the only protein amino acid that does not have chirality. Although most glycine is found in proteins, free glycine is found in body fluids as well as in plants. The normal diet contributes approximately 2 grams of glycine daily.

Glycine is not considered an essential amino acid, i. e., the cells in the body can synthesize sufficient amounts of glycine to meet physiological requirements. However, glycine is of major importance in the synthesis of proteins, peptides, purines, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), nucleic acids, porphyrins, hemoglobin, glutathione, creatine, bile salts, one-carbon fragments, glucose, glycogen, and L-serine and other amino acids. Glycine is also a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system (CNS). Glycine and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) are the major inhibitory neurotransmitters in the CNS. Recently, a glycine-gated chloride channel has been identified in neurophils that can attenuate increases in intracellular calcium ions and diminish oxidant damage mediated by these white blood cells. Thus, glycine may be a novel antioxidant.

Glycine is also known as amino acetic acid, aminoethanolic acid, glycocoll, glycinium and sucre de gelatine. Its IUPAC abbreviation is Gly and its one-letter abbreviation, used when spelling out protein structures, is G. It is a neutral amino acid. Glycine is a solid water-soluble substance that has a sweetish taste. ACTIONSSupplemental glycine may have antispastic activity. Very early findings suggest it may also have antipsychotic activity as well as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities.MECHANISM OF ACTIONIn the CNS, there exist strychnine-sensitive glycine binding sites as well as strychnine-insensitive glycine binding sites. The strychnine-insensitive glycine-binding site is located on the NMDA receptor complex. The strychnine-sensitive glycine receptor complex is comprised of a chloride channel and is a member of the ligand-gated ion channel superfamily. The putative antispastic activity of supplemental glycine could be mediated by glycine's binding to strychnine-sensitive binding sites in the spinal cord. This would result in increased chloride conductance and consequent enhancement of inhibitory neurotransmission.

The ability of glycine to potentiate NMDA receptor-mediated neurotransmission raised the possibility of its use in the management of neuroleptic-resistant negative symptoms in schizophrenia.

Animal studies indicate that supplemental glycine protects against endotoxin-induced lethality, hypoxia-reperfusion injury after liver transplantation, and D-galactosamine-mediated liver injury. Neutrophils are thought to participate in these pathologic processes via invasion of tissue and releasing such reactive oxygen species as superoxide. In vitro studies have shown that neutrophils contain a glycine-gated chloride channel that can attenuate increases in intracellular calcium and diminsh neutrophil oxidant production. This research is ealy-stage, but suggests that supplementary glycine may turn out to be useful in processes where neutrophil infiltration contributes to toxicity, such as ARDS.

Following ingestion of glycine, the amino acid is absorbed from the small intestine via an active transport mechanism. From the small intestine, glycine is transported to the liver by means of the portal circulation where a portion enters into one of several metabolic pathways. Glycine not metabolized in the liver enters the systemic circulation and is distributed to various tissues in the body. Glycine readily crosses the blood-brain barrier.

Glycine may be indicated to help alleviate the symptoms of spasticity. An indication for potentiating some anti-convulsant drugs and preventing some seizures could emerge, as could an indication for its use in managing schizophrenia. Research in progress also suggests usefulness in some cancers. There is no evidence to support use of glycine as an ergogenic aid, and it is too early to say whether it can play any useful role in lipid metabolism. There are no well-designed clinical trials to support its use in benign prostate hypertrophy.

Glycine first attracted interest in the medical research community for its reputed ability to dampen reflex excitability in the CNS. A pilot study of its effects on severe chronic leg spasticity (most of the subjects were suffering from chronic multiple sclerosis) yielded improvement in spasticity and mobility of the lower limbs, rated at about 25% overall. The dose used was 1 gram daily for six months to a year. All patients noted some benefits, and no adverse events were recorded. Other researchers have since reported that glycine can potentiate some but not all anticonvulsant drugs in some animal models. It has also been shown to prevent some experimentally produced seizures.

The effects of oral glycine (200 mg/kg/day) were tested in two siblings suffering from 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase deficiency, an inborn error of L-serine biosynthesis. A significant amount of glycine is made from L-serine. Among the features of this disorder are intractable seizures. L-serine in doses up to 500 mg/kg/day failed to control the seizures, but oral glycine completely stopped them, and electroencephalographic abnormalities resolved after six months of treatment.

High-dose glycine may be beneficial in the management of enduring negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Twenty-two treatment-resistant schizophrenic patients participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, six-week, crossover treatment trial with 0.8 grams per kilogram daily of glycine added to their ongoing antipsychotic medication. Glycine intake ranged from 40 to 90 grams daily. Only mild gastrointestinal side effects (nausea and vomiting) were reported in one patient taking glycine. Patients taking glycine experienced significantly diminished negative symptoms. Followup studies are planned.

Recent animal studies suggest that glycine may have some anti-cancer properties. In one recent study, 51 weeks of glycine supplementation did not stop early foci formation of cancer but reduced formation of small liver tumors by 23%, medium-sized tumors by 64% and large tumors by nearly 80% in rats given an agent that is a peroxisome proliferator and liver carcinogen.

In another recent study, dietary glycine inhibited B16 melanoma tumors in mice. Glycine-supplemented mice had tumors that were 50 to 70% smaller in size than those in controls. The protective mechanism in this case appeared to be inhibition of angiogenesis effected by suppressed endothelial-cell proliferation. Tumors in mice fed glycine had 70% fewer arteries than were present in the tumors of controls.

Whether very preliminary data suggesting some positive effects of glycine on lipid metabolism will be mirrored in human research remains to be seen.

Partly because glycine is a precursor of creatine, some have assumed that it might have some of the same ergogenic potential that has been claimed for creatine. This, so far, has not been demonstrated. Glycine is claimed to be beneficial for benign prostatic hypertrophy based on a dated clinical study that has never been confirmed.

Glycine supplementation is contraindicated in those hypersensitive to any component of the preparation. It is also contraindicated in those who are anuric (some glycine gets converted to ammonia).

Glycine supplementation should be avoided by pregnant women and nursing mothers. Because of some conversion of glycine to ammonia, those with hepatic impairment should avoid glycine supplementation unless prescribed.

Doses of 1 gram daily are very well tolerated. Mild gastrointestinal symptoms are infrequently noted. In one study doses of 90 grams daily were also well tolerated.INTERACTIONSAntispastic drugs. Theoretically, supplemental glycine might have additive effects when used in conjunction with baclofen, diazepam, dantrolene sodium and tizanidine.

No other drug, nutritional supplement, food or herb interactions are known.

There are no reports of overdosage in humans. The majority of mice receiving 3 to 4.5 grams per kilogram by intravenous infusion experienced bradycardia, prolongation of the PQ interval, QRS duration and death.

Glycine is available in 500 milligram tablets and capsules. Those who supplement use up to 1 gram daily in divided doses. Doses used for management of schizophrenia have ranged from 40 to 90 grams daily.As always, we strongly advise you do your own research and more importantly consult your own medical professional before commencing any use of this or any other dietary supplement .This statement has not been evaluated by the FDA. This is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

What is HMB?

HMB or Beta-Hydroxy Beta-methylbutyrate is a byproduct of the normal breakdown of the amino acid Leucine. It is therefore a metabolite of the essential amino acid - Leucine. HMB is produced in our body from the proteins in our diet and is also consumed in small amounts from the foods we eat. Foods like catfish and alfalfa contain small amounts of HMB.What benefits do HMB supplements have?HMB supplements help to gain muscle by minimizing the amount of muscle that is broken down after you train. You may get the following benefits:

  • Increased gains of lean muscle
  • Prevents muscle catabolism
  • Speeds up muscle repair and recovery times
  • Decreases body fat
  • Decreases blood cholesterol levels
  • Increase VO2 max and endurance How HMB supplements work:HMB supplements help to slow down a process call proteolysis, which is the natural process of breaking down muscle.
  • tissue that occurs after intense physical activity (weight training in this case). Taking HMB gives the body a head start of muscle recovery by minimizing the amount of muscle breakdown and protein degradation after exercise. This means that you body stays in an anabolic state for longer allowing for more muscle growth.
HMB supplements were first used by Iowa State University in cattle. Their tests found that by giving cattle HMB supplements they would produce more muscle tissue and less body fat. Studies were then carried out on humans with the same results. Iowa State University tested 40 men who trained for 4 weeks and found that the men who were given 3 grams of HMB per day built more muscle and lost more body fat the men who trained without HMB.Does HMB have any side effects?Published studies have been undertaken to measure the side effects of taking HMB supplements in men, women, children and the elderly. In 9 separate studies only positive effects were found on muscle, body fat, blood pressure and cholesterol.Can HMB be taken with other supplements?HMB supplements are commonly taken with whey protein, glutamine, creatine and carbs. In fact it's possible to buy blends which contain HMB with other products like creatine and whey protein. Taking HMB with other supplements will actually have a positive effect. For example creatine will give you the power to work your muscles harder and HMB will minimize muscle breakdown and recovery times.

How much HMB you should take:Like many other muscle building supplements the recommended about of HMB you should be taking depends on your bodyweight. As a general guide, for people weighing up to 130lbs (60kg) 2 grams per day should be enough. For people weighing over 130lbs (60kg) a dosage of 4 grams per day is recommended. You should only take 1 gram at a time, so if you're over 130lbs take 1 gram 4 times per day.How long does it take HMB to work?Measurable increases in strength and muscle mass may be seen in 2-4 weeks.What does it do and what scientific studies give evidence to support this?Many of the world's champions and athletes are using HMB and receiving dramatic results. Specifically, HMB plays a role in the synthesis of muscle tissue. It has the ability to burn fat and build muscle consistently in response to exercise. Backed heavily by science, HMB works for NFL greats like Shannon Sharpe and Olympic medallists throughout the globe. New scientific studies are being conducted on this supplement all the time.

Recently, a study showed in a control group supplementing with HMB, that after taking 3 grams of HMB per day for three weeks, those who took HMB versus the random placebo takers gained three times more muscle on their bench press! Animal studies also suggest that it may increase lean muscle mass. A study conducted on humans showed that those who supplemented with HMB experienced enhanced strength, greater endurance, and increased fat loss. It's ability to boost endurance alone is an incredible result. A seven week long study showed a much greater gain in muscle when a group of 28 participated in a regular weight-training program. How does HMB do all this? It appears to increase the rate of protein being used to increase muscle growth, while decreasing the atrophy or tear down of muscle that occurs. Are there any side effects or interactions?No safety issues have been reported in the limited number of studies currently available.

At the time of writing, there were no well-known drug interactions with HMB..


L-Dopa (L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine) is an amino acid that is formed in the liver and converted into dopamine in the brain. It is essential for integrated movement of individual muscle groups.

Dopamine apparently does not enter the brain from the blood, and is ineffective when it is medically administered. L-Dopa enters the brain through the blood and then it is converted into dopamine.

What it is:
L-Dopa is an amino acid, which converts to Dopamine. Dopamine is an essential component of our body and it is required for proper functioning of the brain.

What it does:
Although L-Dopa Extract is well known for its treatment of Parkinson's, there are many other benefits. L-Dopa Extract has been shown to significantly increase the body's natural production of human growth hormone (HGH). This is very important because increasing HGH has powerful Health benefits for both men and women.

The benefits to your body are: Mucuna Pruriens gives us an "All Natural" source of L-Dopa Extract. Because the L-Dopa is extracted from a natural plant source, our body actually absorbs and utilizes a higher percentage. The improved absorption means you experience better results with smaller servings.

Because the L-Dopa Extract is from an "All Natural" source, the L-Dopa extract has no side effects. With "Mucuna Pruriens" L-Dopa Extract, you have better absorption and no side effects.

Dosage: usage 250mg to 500mg per day best before bed It is recommended that you consult your professional health care provider before supplementing L-Dopa into your daily diet.


  • Nervous system support
  • Supports energy production
  • Critical for enzyme function
  • Magnesium is a mineral that is critical for energy production and metabolism, muscle contraction, nerve impulse transmission and bone mineralization. It is required cofactor for an estimated 300 enzymes. Among the reactions catalyzed by these enzymes are fatty acid synthesis, protein synthesis and glucose metabolism. Magnesium status is also important for regulation of calcium balance through its effects on the parathyroid gland.A Dietary Supplement Suggested UseAs a dietary supplement, take .5 gm with or between meals.


OKG supplements, taken at doses shown to be effective (10-15 grams per day) glutamine and arginine, which increase growth hormone levels and are regulators of protein synthesis. Studies show that OKG generates more glutamine and arginine in the systemic circulation than when these substances are given orally.

OKG is a salt formed by combining two molecules of the amino acid ornithine and one molecule of alpha-ketoglutarate. Because OKG seems to be involved in amino acid synthesis and protein availability, many athletes supplement with OKG as a way to increase muscle mass, hormone levels and strength.

Taking OKG decreases muscle protein catabolism (breakdown) and increases protein synthesis, in addition to promoting wound healing. OKG fulfills these functions by encouraging the secretion of insulin and human growth hormone, and by upregulating glutamine and arginine production. When given to trauma patients, there are significant increases in both IGF-1 and growth hormone levels.


Ornithine is an amino acid that does not occur in proteins but is important in the formation of urea. L-Ornithine is a nonprotein amino acid. It is used in the body in the biosynthesis of L-arginine, L-proline and polyamines.

L-Ornithine is a basic amino acid, positively charged at physiological pH. It is also known as alpha,delta-diaminovaleric acid and 2,5-diaminopentanoic acid. Its molecular formula is C5H12N2O2, and its molecular weight is 132.16 daltons.

L-Ornithine is used as a nutritional supplement principally for its putative anabolic activity. There is little evidence to support this use. However, a derivative of L-ornithine called ornithine alpha-ketoglutarate or OKG may, under certain conditions, have immunomodulatory and anticatabolic and/or anabolic actions.

Ornithine is important because it induces the release of growth hormone in the body, which in turn helps with fat metabolism. Ornithine is required for a properly functioning immune system and liver. It assists in ammonia detoxification and liver Rejuvenation. Ornithine helps healing and repairing skin and tissue and is found in both these body parts.. Ornithine is helpful for people recouping after surgery and athletes may benefit from this nutrient.

L-Ornithine can be changed into L-Arginine in the body and it functions similarly in growth hormone release.

Tribulus terrestris

As a Dietary supplementTribulus terrestris It is now being promoted as a booster for the purpose of increasing sex drive. Its use for this purpose originated in Eastern Europe in the 1970's. Independent studies have suggested that Tribulus terrestris extract slightly increases hormone levels, though leaving them in the normal range.

Some have compared the tonic properties of Tribulus terrestris to the effects of ginseng, but these occur due to entirely different mechanisms. It is also claimed that Tribulus terrestris increases testosterone by increasing gonadotropin-releasing hormone(GnRH) which in turn stimulates the production of LH and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). Testosterone, besides its role in muscle-building and raising fertility and libido, is also known to have a positive effect on bone marrow activity (for red blood cell production) and the immune system.

On the other hand, one recent study found that T. terrestris caused no increase in testosterone or LH in young men, and another found that a commercial supplement containing androstenedione and herbal extracts, including T. terrestris, was no more effective at raising testosterone levels than androstenedione aloneSupplementWatch does not consider that there is any scientific evidence for effectiveness in muscle building. It suggests that it may be beneficial for those whose testosterone is below normal, such as dieters and overtrained athletes.

The active chemical in T. terrestris is is likely to be:

No significant adverse effects have been reported from supplementation with Tribulus terrestris. However, some users report an upset stomach, which can usually be counteracted by taking it with food.protodioscin (PTN), a cousin to DHEA. In a study with mice, Tribulus was shown to enhance mounting activity and erection better than testosterone cypionate. This however, isn't as convincing as one might think. Although an OTC supplement outpacing a pharmaceutical is big news, testosterone cypionate is a synthetic ester of testosterone engineered for its longer activity. To be effective, its level must build up in the system of the animal using it. This process usually takes 2–3 weeks.

Retrieved on 15 November 2007 The proerectile aphrodisiac properties were concluded to likely be due to the release of nitric oxide from the nerve endings innervating the corpus cavernosum penis. has long been a constituent in tonics in Indian ayurveda practice, where it is known by its Sanskrit name, "gokshura."[ Thumbtack-like Tribulus terrestris thorns are a hazard to bicycle tiresTribulus terrestris.

Like many weedy species, this plant has many common names. Puncture Vine, Caltrop, Yellow Vine, and Goathead are the most widely used; others include automobile-weed, bindy eye, bindii, bullhead, burnut, burra gokhroo, calthrops, cat's head, common dubbeltjie, devil's thorn, devil's weed, doublegee, dubbeltje, gokshura, ground bur-nut, isiHoho, land caltrop, Maltese cross, Mexican sandbur, puncture weed, rose, small caltrops, sticker, tackweed, and Texas sandbur (also T. micrococcus). is a flowering plant in the family Zygophyllaceae, native to warm temperate and tropical regions of the Old World in southern Europe, southern Asia, throughout Africa, and in northern Australia. It can thrive even in desert climates and poor soil.


A PPAR Antagonist And Effective Fat Loss Agent!TTA assists your In simplest terms, Tetradecylthioacetic Acid (TTA) is a fatty acid that can help burn body-fat. · Can be cost effectively incorporated into fat loss, lean bulking, or body recomposition regimens. · Contains 99.99% pure pharmasuetical Tetradecylthioacetic Acid (TTA) . TTA is commonly used to help aid in fat loss and body recomposition. · TTA is stimulant free & can be used as a stand alone, or can be combined with other fat loss products. fat loss endeavors on multiple levels. Not only will it release fat from your fat stores, but it will increase your body’s efficiency at burning fat. It does this by increasing both the "mini-furnaces" present in the cell that are responsible for burning fat, and by increasing the fat burning enzymes that assist these furnaces. It also increases fat usage by promoting the proteins in the cell responsible for "wasting" energy. On top of these remarkable fat burning effects, it promotes general health by boosting the immune system, improving blood flow, exerting anti-inflammatory effects and promoting healthy cholesterol.


PPAR stands for Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors. PPAR's are a group of transcription factors (proteins that transcribe genetic information from DNA to RNA) that play key roles in cell development, glucose metabolism, and metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins.

There are different types of PPAR's, but TTA relates to PPAR-alpha.TTA also helps increase mitochondrial activity, which in itself provides numerous benefits. Mitochondria proteins function mainly to produce ATP (ATP transports chemical energy within cells for metabolism).By enhancing mitochondria protein function, the body burns more fuel, which translates into fat loss. The more fat that someone is carrying, the more inhibition of mitochondrial function they generally have.

TTA also enhances mitochondrial oxidative capacity.

TTA also helps in reducing free fatty acids and triglyceride levels.

As a dietary supplement, take 250mg (quarter gm) 4 times per day , approximately 30 minutes prior to meals. To assess individual tolerance, it is suggested that individuals begin usage with 500mg per day and increase dosage by 250mg every 3 days until a maximum of 100mg (1 gm). If cramping is experienced, maintain or lower dosage accordingly.

Keep out of reach of children. The product is not to be used by individuals under 18 years of age or by women that may be pregnant or nursing. Always consult a physician prior to using any dietary supplements.

There is a strong link between insulin resistance and the reduction of glucose oxidization in the mitochondria and the subsequent build up for glycolysis byproducts. The liver is the main site in which fatty acids are burnt as energy or stored dependant upon calorie intake and energy expenditure. When in a fasting state, the body generally switches from using carbohydrate and fats as an energy source to mainly fat. Fatty acids are released from adipocytes (the cells that primarily compose adipose tissue). These fatty acids are then either restored in adipocytes, go to cardiac and skeletal muscle to be burned as energy, or are broken down through beta oxidization to form ketones. PPAR-alpha mediates the genes that control fatty acid uptake, beta oxidization, and gamma oxidization which are upregulated when in a fasting state. Therefore, with TTA being a PPAR-alpha antagonist, it activates these receptors allowing you to receive these benefits while in a fed state as well. PPAR-alpha also helps inhibit triglyceride hydrolysis, which further enhances lipid oxidization.


L-valine is a branched-chain essential amino acid (BCAA) that has stimulant activity. It promotes muscle growth and tissue repair. It is a precursor in the penicillin biosynthetic pathway. Valine is one of three branched-chain amino acids (the others are leucine and isoleucine) that enhance energy, increase endurance, and aid in muscle tissue recovery and repair. This group also lowers elevated blood sugar levels and increases growth hormone production. Supplemental valine should always be combined with isoleucine and leucine at a respective milligram ratio of 2:1:2. It is an essential amino acid found in proteins; important for optimal growth in infants and for growth in children and nitrogen balance in adults. The lack of L-valine may influence the growth of body, cause neuropathic obstacle, anaemia. It has wide applications in the field of pharmaceutical and food industry.

Zinc Monomethionine

Chelated Zinc and Methionine More than 70% of women do not obtain the minimum daily requirement of zinc from their diets. Zinc is an enzyme co-factor that assists the body in absorbing enzymes, such as Vitalzym. Additionally, it plays an important role in hormone production and balance, and is crucial to the manufacture and repair of DNA. Zinc's role in strengthening a women's immune system is rapidly being recognized as critical. Zinc and Women’s Hormonal BalanceZinc helps prevent hormonal imbalance and fibrosisdamage.

Other ingredients: Microcrystalline cellulose and hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose (Vcap). Suggested Use: As a dietary supplement, take daily with meals or as directed 25 mg by a health care professional.

Possible Zinc Side EffectsLong-term supplementation at doses above 50 mg/day can induce a copper deficiency and has been shown to cause an increase in cholesterol and lower HDL levels.1 Supplementing copper with the zinc should eliminate this problem.2If your multi-vitamin/mineral formula contains copper and zinc, please factor the amount into your daily intake. For those who live in areas where there are high copper levels in water, there may not be a need to supplement with copper.

People with estrogen dominance may not need to add copper into their daily regimen, due to the fact that copper is generally high when this condition is present. Additionally, high levels of copper can be reduced by taking zinc alone.

Individuals who are not sure if they should take copper while supplementing conditions because it plays an important role in hormone production and balance. Zinc helps to increase progesterone levels and lower estrogen. The American Zinc Association states that as a woman ages, she may undergo dietary or hormonal changes which could affect her zinc status. For example, excess estrogen can lower serum zinc levels and women who are estrogen dominant or using estrogen replacement therapy should check to be sure their zinc intake is adequate.

According to the America Zinc Association, zinc may help in the treatment of pre-menstrual syndrome (PMS), which affects 50 percent of all menstruating women. Recent studies cannot say for sure, but there is growing evidence that a deficiency of progesterone underlies PMS, and trace amounts of zinc regulate the secretion of hormones, including progesterone.

Early research at Baylor College of Medicine in Houston found significantly lower levels of zinc among women with PMS during the last 13 days of the menstrual cycle. This reduction could lead to a decrease in secretions of progesterone and endorphins, the natural painkillers our bodies produce. The research is preliminary and if zinc deficiency does play a role, it might only affect a subgroup; nevertheless, studies continue to confirm zinc's importance to the regulation of hormones. Zinc also governs the contractibility of muscles, including uterine muscle, and plays a role in menstrual regulation.

Zinc and Men’s Hormonal BalanceCommonly used to manage colds, zinc is one of the most important supplements for men’s health. And is most concentrated in the prostate gland.1 A key mineral in male sexual function and a protector nutrient against prostate cancer.2,3

For the aging male population, zinc supplementation can be indicated for several reasons. The mineral zinc, which inhibits the activity of the 5-alpha reductase enzyme that irreversibly converts testosterone to dihydrotestosterone, may be helpful in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia.3 Zinc also has a critical role in male sexual function and is necessary for all aspects of male reproduction, including hormone metabolism and sperm formation and motility.

In men, zinc deficiency syndromes can present in different ways. Low testosterone and low sperm counts may be signs of a zinc deficiency.3 Men with excessive estrogen levels despite normal testosterone levels may also lack the mineral.4 Increased estrogen levels result from elevated amounts of the aromatase enzyme which converts testosterone to estrogen.

Read more about zinc for Men's Health on our Zinc for Men webpage.

Symptoms of Zinc Deficiency

  • Acne
  • Anorexia
  • Delayed wound healing
  • Depression
  • Difficulty hearing
  • Fatigue
  • Frequent infections
  • Impaired sense of taste or smell
  • Joint pain
  • Light sensitivity
  • Night Blindness
  • Problems with hair, skin, or nails
  • Weak sexual function or sterility
Vital During Pregnancy & BreastfeedingBecause zinc is used to generate cells, it is essential for the developing fetus where cells are rapidly dividing. Adequate zinc contributes to growth, lessens premature births and other complications, and improves neonatal survival.

Zinc is also important to mothers who breastfeed. Studies in The Lancet showed that by the sixth month of lactation even a well-nourished mother may provide less zinc than is necessary for her infant. Zinc causes babies to thrive. Breastfed babies who received zinc supplements grew significantly in length and weight over those given a placebo. Zinc and Aging A Wayne State study found that nearly 30 percent of a large group of healthy, affluent women over 50 were zinc deficient. It's believed that zinc deficiency is common in older women, partly because they eat less, which makes getting enough zinc difficult.

Zinc's role in strengthening a women's immune system is rapidly being recognized as critical. Without enough zinc, the body can't produce thymulin, a substance which helps make mature T-cells, some of the body's strongest defenders against infections and disease. The immune system weakens with age, and zinc deficiency may be partly to blame.

Zinc also plays a role in maintaining vision. In particular, it's needed for night vision and it may also slow the progression of macular degeneration, a disorder of the retina that is the leading cause of severe loss of vision in older women.

Genetic ExpressionGroundbreaking research in zinc is its role in genetic transcription and replication. The discovery of "zinc fingers," which activate hundreds of genes, promises understanding of how growth promoters, like steroids, work and may help treat tumors and viral diseases. Zinc finger proteins bind to DNA by wrapping around small sections of DNA molecules, activating a gene. Research into zinc finger proteins has already explained some genetic defects.

Zinc and VitalzymZinc is an enzyme co-factor that assists the body in absorbing enzymes, such as those found in Vitalzym, to help them work as efficiently as possible in the body.

If you are using Vitalzym for a fibrosis condition that is related to estrogen dominance, or any condition, you may not be utilizing the enzymes as well as possible because you may have low levels of zinc.

Between 15 and 50 mg a day is suggested to optimize enzyme absorption, the immune system, and hormonal balance.

Supplement FactsServing Size:
Zinc monomethionine is a 1:1 chelated complex of the antioxidants zinc and methionine. Human and animal studies have demonstrated that zinc monomethionine is more effective than other zinc supplements tested. Zinc monomethionine has been shown to stimulate new cell growth, enhance immunity, nourish skin structures, support male sexual function, and fight free radical with zinc may want to have their copper levels tested prior to adding it to their diet.

Doses above 150 mg/day can be problematic and cause diarrhea, dizziness, drowsiness, vomiting, muscle in-coordination, and lethargy .25 mg per day.


ZMA is a synergistic combination of zinc, magnesium and vitamin B6, specifically designed to enhance muscle strength, endurance, and recovery from exercise. Taken before bedtime, ZMA promotes deeper, more restful sleep, which is when maximum healing, and muscle growth takes place. ZMA consists of a unique covalently-bound complex of zinc, magnesium and aspartic acid, which enables the magnesium and zinc to reach the bloodstream at the same time so that the desired synergistic effect can be obtained. ZMA Promotes Restful, Restorative SleepClinically Proven Effectiveness for Strength Training.

  • Increased plasma zinc levels 29.1%, while placebo levels decreased 4.4% (a 33.5% difference)
  • Increased plasma magnesium levels 6.2%, while placebo levels decreased 9.2% (a 15.4% difference)
  • Increased total testosterone levels 32.4%, while placebo levels decreased 10.5% (a 42.9% difference)
  • Increased free testosterone levels 33.5%, while placebo levels decreased 10.2% (a 43.7% difference)
  • Increased IGF-1 levels 3.6%, while placebo levels decreased 21.5% (a 25.1% difference)
  • Increased muscle strength 11.6%, while placebo strength increased only 4.6% (a 2.5-fold difference) Zinc for Cellular Growth and Tissue HealthMagnesium for Energy Production and Neuromuscular FunctionZMA for Low Energy and Muscle Health.
ZMA was designed to optimize the absorption and availability of zinc and magnesium during peak times of muscle growth. Both the zinc l-monomethionine and zinc/magnesium aspartate in ZMA are unique and highly bioavailable forms of these minerals. The zinc l-monomethionine is absorbed in the front part of the small intestine at the mineral receptor sites, while the zinc/magnesium aspartate is absorbed in the back of the small intestine via an active transport mechanism. In addition, the zinc/magnesium aspartate in ZMA consists of a unique covalently-bound complex of zinc, magnesium and aspartic acid, which enables the magnesium and zinc to reach the bloodstream at the same time so that the desired synergistic effect can be obtained. The addition of vitamin B6 further increases the absorption and utilization of both zinc and magnesium. ZMA for Healthy IGF-1 LevelsZMA should be taken before bed on an empty stomach (2 hours after eating your last meal and at least 30 minutes prior to any other supplements). The product should not be taken with calcium (cheese,milk,etc.), the reason being that calcium blocks the absorption of zinc.RDA for men .5 to 1 gm per day for women .3 to .75 gm per day Insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) is an anabolic hormone that decreases as we age. Growth hormones are essential substances produced in the body that help maintain muscle tissue, and support proper body function. Most growth hormones are secreted during the deep sleep cycle. It is then necessary reach this restorative sleep phase for good health. ZMA naturally promotes the deep sleep cycle, where healthy levels of IGF-1 are produced.

Unfortunately, zinc and magnesium deficiencies are common, and physical activity can increase the need for these important minerals. Numerous studies show that exercise and stress result in significant losses of zinc and magnesium. According to USDA researchers, when exercise-enhanced mineral losses are coupled with inadequate dietary intakes, athletes are at special risk to mineral deficiencies.

Magnesium aids in the transport of oxygen to muscle tissue, which promotes strength, endurance and relaxation. Magnesium also activates enzymes necessary for the metabolism of carbohydrates and amino acids.

Zinc is an anabolic mineral required for the production of growth hormone and testosterone, which promote healing and growth. In addition, zinc helps improve energy by minimizing the build-up of lactic acid in muscle tissue. Zinc is also necessary for the maintenance of a healthy immune system. ZMA has been used by dozens of world-class Olympic and professional athletes and bodybuilders, including members of the Super Bowl Champion Denver Broncos and Miami Dolphins football teams. It is also the only non-steroidal, all-natural zinc and magnesium supplement clinically-proven to increase insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) and strength training in athletes. In a recent double-blind, placebo-controlled study conducted with NCAA college football players, researchers at Western Washington University found that eight weeks of nightly supplementation with ZMA.

ZMA has been developed to improve sleep efficiency. ZMA is reported to effectively enhance sleep and is recommended to be taken 30-60 minutes before bedtime. Healing, anabolic hormone production and muscle growth are maximized during sleep, so quality sleep is extremely important to all of us.


What is Whey protein?

Amino Acids make up protein. Protein makes up basically everything in your body.

In fact the only thing our body has more of than protein is water.

It really is as simple as that. Protein is the building block of our whole body - muscles, tissues, hair, nails, etc - all made up of protein. If you do not have enough protein in your body you can NOT build muscle mass. The body needs to break protein down to amino acids to build muscles. So, no matter how much you work out - if you don't have protein - you will not gain muscle mass.

Another important point to remember is that every time you work out you are tearing down muscles and then rebuilding them. Protein is necessary to repair and rebuild your muscles.

What types of foods have protein?

Protein is found in common foods such as beef, fish, chicken, milk, eggs and cheese. Eating a diet rich in these foods is a good way to get protein. Unfortunately it can also be a good way to increase a lot of other things you don't want in your body like fats and sugars.

Here are some common foods and their levels of protein:
  • Food Amount of Protein
  • 3 oz. broiled ground beef 21 grams
  • 3 oz. roasted ham 18 grams
  • 3 oz. veal -broiled 23 grams
  • 3.5 oz. roasted chicken 27 grams
  • 3.5 oz. baked/roasted salmon 27 grams
  • 3.5 oz. tuna canned in water 28 grams
  • 1 beef frankfurter 6 grams
  • 1 oz. sliced ham 5 grams
  • 1 large boiled egg 6 grams
  • 1 cup of Milk 8 grams

Don't I get enough protein from my diet?

If you work out - probably not. New studies from the International Journal of Sports Nutrition show that someone who works out should ingest significantly more protein than couch potatoes.

How much protein should I take?

Unfortunately, there is no exact answer to this question. There are a two different formulas that are commonly used: To ensure that the body is in a positive muscle building state, in other words, that it is burning fat--not muscle, you should ingest at least .9 grams of protein per lean pound of body weight.

For example, a 200 lb. man with 12% bodyfat requires 158 grams of protein daily.
  • 200 X .12 = 24 lbs
  • 200 - 24 = 176 lbs
  • 176 X .9 = 158 gms
The latest study from the International Journal of Sports Nutrition says that people involved in strength training should get 1.6 - 1.7 grams protein per kilogram (2.2 pounds) of bodyweight per day. That is .7 grams per pound. Therefore, a 200 lb man (200 * .7) would need 140 grams of protein. Slightly less than the first formula.

As an estimate we figure that you should consume between .7 - .9 grams of protein per pound of body weight. These number vary based on the amount of body fat you have. Women have higher body fat than men, so they should be on the lower end of the scale. Here are some examples:
  • 150 pounds = 105 - 135 grams of protein a day
  • 160 pounds = 112 - 144 grams of protein a day
  • 170 pounds = 119 - 153 grams of protein a day
  • 180 pounds = 126 - 162 grams of protein a day
  • 190 pounds = 133 - 171 grams of protein a day
  • 200 pounds = 140 - 180 grams of protein a day
  • 220 pounds = 154 - 198 grams of protein a day
  • 240 pounds = 168 - 216 grams of protein a day
  • 260 pounds = 182 - 234 grams of protein a day

Are all protein supplements the same?

No. Protein supplements can be made from a few different source of protein. These include milk protein, egg protein, soy protein. In addition, not all protein is absorbed in the same way in the body. The better a protein is absorbed by the body the higher the Biological Value (BV) the protein is said to have.

What is the BV rating I see associated with protein?

This measures the amount of protein ( or more precisely - the nitrogen) retained in the human body per gram of protein absorbed. This measure started out as a percentage - with a whole egg being at the top of the chart - 100% nitrogen absorbed. However, things got a little more confusing when Whey Protein was discovered. The problem is whey is a better source of protein than an egg - so it actually scores higher than 100. This means the percentage must be dropped - because greater than 100% does not make much sense. So, today BV is a number which lets you compare different types of protein. Here is the BV of some common foods:

Protein BV:
  • Whey isolate 110-159
  • Whey concentrate 104
  • Whole egg 100
  • Cow's milk 91
  • Egg white 88
  • Fish 83
  • Beef 80
  • Chicken 79
  • Casein 77
  • Soy 74
  • Rice 59
  • Wheat 54
  • Beans 49

What is Whey Protein and why is it good?

Whey Protein is derived from milk protein. However, unlike milk proteins - whey protein does not contain fat or lactose sugar. Whey protein is the best form of protein to take when using a supplement. Basically with Whey Protein you get all the advantages of protein without the excess baggage other proteins come with - no fat and no lactose. Not only that, studies have shown that Whey Protein can increase our blood levels of glutathione. Glutathione is an antioxidant which is essential to a healthy immune system. As we get older glutathione levels decrease and our immune system weakens. Studies are still being done - but at the University of Nebraska Medical center they were able to extend the life span of hamsters by 60% by supplementing their diet with Whey Protein. So, whey protein is not only good for building and repairing muscles, it also may extend your life.

What are the reasons I should supplement with whey protein?

To build muscle mass
  • To speed recovery time
  • Reduce injuries related to working out
  • Maintain a healthy and fit body
  • eel better during your workouts

Will taking protein make me fat?

No - in fact it may help you if you are on a diet. You see the amino acids in protein may help keep your blood sugar levels stabile. This is important because it keeps you feeling good all day and stops your craving for food that occurs when your blood sugar level drops. If your diet is too high in carbohydrates your blood sugar levels go though peaks and valleys. You go from a burst of energy and feeling full to a lull and being hungry. In addition, if you are dieting, getting 17 grams of protein from a protein shake that has only 90 calories is better than getting your protein from a big meal which may have hundreds of calories.

How Do You Compare Protein Products?

Very carefully! I will be honest with you, it is very hard to get the facts from a quick look at the labels. If you want to compare two competing products here are some tips to make sure you are comparing apples to apples:
  • Make sure both products are Ion-Exchanged Whey Protein. This is one thing everyone agrees on - Whey Protein is much better than egg protein.
  • Whey Protein can be made of concentrate, isolate or a combination of the two. Isolate is more expensive than concentrate - but has a higher Biological Value. On paper a pure Whey Protein Isolate mix is going to be the highest quality. However, in practice we feel a blend of concentrate and isolate provides the best bang for the buck. It is not clear that the benefits of only taking Isolate are significant enough to merit the steep increase in price over a good blend.
  • Watch out for the Serving Size trick. What you really want to look at is amount of protein per gram. Scoops come in all sizes - so a company could advertise "50 grams per serving". But if a serving is 75 grams of powder - this is not a high quality protein.
  • ompare all other ingredients. You may not want aspartame in your protein. You also need to compare calories, carbs, taste, etc. As you can see - it can be very difficult.
The Whey Protein also has a 50.3% Branched-Chain Aminos to EAA ratio. This is one of the more impressive ratios in the industry and helps explain why the Whey Protein is a favorite of serious athletes.

When is the best time to take a protein supplement?

This depends on your diet and when you are eating foods rich in protein. Here are a few points when it is best to take a protein supplement: Right after a workout - this is when your body goes into a stage of recovery and growth. Having the amino acids that make up the protein is key at this point. First thing in the morning - because your body has just gone though 8 hours (or however long you sleep for) of not having food - so the protein levels are way down. Before you go to sleep - this helps prevent the protein breakdown that naturally occurs when we sleep. If you are not trying to build muscle mass then this protein breakdown is fine. But if you are working out - you want to try to minimize any losses you suffer when you sleep and your protein metabolism slows down.

Are there any dangers of taking too much protein?

Yes. As with basically anything - too much of a good thing can be bad. If you take too much protein, say you weigh 150 pounds and take 300 grams of protein a day - your body will not be able to process all the protein into amino acids. What your body can not use will have to be excreted as a waste product. This means your kidney and liver will be doing a lot of work just to get the excess protein out of your body. While this will not cause any major problems over a short period of time - you would not want to be overworking your kidney and liver over the course of several years.

That being said - protein supplementation is very safe if you stay within the dosage guidelines.

Supplement Facts
Serving Size1/3Cup(28.35g)

Amount Per Serving % Daily Value
  • Calories 105
  • Calories From Fat 0
  • Trans Fatty Acids 0mg
  • Total Fat 0g
  • Saturated Fat 0mg
  • Monounsaturated Fat 0mg
  • Polyunsaturated Fat 0mg
  • Sodium 43mg
  • Total Carbohydrate 1g
  • Sugars 0g
  • Protein 26g
  • Vitamin A 0%
  • Calcium 0%
  • Vitamin C 2%
  • Iron 0%
* Percent Daily Values are based on a 2,000 calorie diet
† Daily Value not established Ingredient Pure Multiple Reaction, Sequential, Enzymatic Hydrolyses.

Egg Protein Info And Products & Quality High BV Protein Source

egg Protein has been used by athletes around the world who are looking for a great quality protein. Before the products below were created, bodybuilders were forced to drink egg whites, which can be unsafe, or cook dozens of eggs at a time. The high cholesterol and fat in eggs made this a somewhat unhealthy way of getting your protein.

Now, great Egg Protein products have fixed these problems and made it easier than ever to take in as much egg protein as you want in a single, delicious shake!

Recent Studies

December 2001 - Consuming Protein Supplements Can Help Deter the Effects of Overtraining!

Protein intake of approx. 0.88 grams per pound of body weight resulted in increased prevention of overtraining. This study was conducted at Ball State University on 17 weight-trained men. They were put on a four week "overtraining" program were they did 8-12 rep maxes for three sets, eight exercises for the first two weeks, then five sets, five exercises for 3-5 rep maxes for the next two weeks. The men were chosen to receive either an amino acid supplement or a placebo for the duration of the four weeks (0.88 grams/lb body weight/day). Those that were given the amino acids had measureable positive changes in total testosterone, the ratio of testosterone to the protein that transports it, and hemoglobin compared to those given a placebo. This proves that adequate protein consumption is the key to making gains! Be sure to get enough (approx. 1gram per lb. of body weight).

December 2001 - Protein Taken With Carbs is Better than Protein Alone for Building Muscle!

This study, conducted at University of Texas Medical Branch, measured the amount of uptake of the amino acid L-phenylalanine into healthy leg muscle tissue in one of three protein shakes. The shakes were consumed one and two hours after intense leg training and provided about 6 grams of protein, 34 grams of carbs, or both per shake for a 150 bodybuilder. The L-phenylalanine uptake in the protein and carb shake was measured as being three times higher than the carb shake and roughly twice as great as the amino shake! So, there you have it! As you know, the postworkout shake is the most critical meal for your increased anabolism. Make sure you're getting some carbs in your postworkout shake for best results!

Thank you for your interest!