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Acetyl L Carnitine

One of the key uses of Acetyl l Carnitine supplement is for fatty acid oxidation helping users burn unwanted body fat. Fatty acids are one the key energy sources the body uses and oxidation is the process by which they're broken down to create energy. The fatty acids cannot penetrate the inner mitochondria membrane (where they are burned for energy), and the key role for L-Carnitine is to transport fatty acids across the mitochondria membrane to allow for oxidation of the fats.

Acetyl l Carnitine BENEFITS of according to published studies:
  • Acetyl l carnitine may improve mental fatigue in those who suffer from chronic fatigue syndrome.Patients with multiple sclerosis are helped by acetyl l carnitine, which reduces their fatigue.
  • In aging rats, chronic administration of acetyl l carnitine increases cholinergic synaptic transmission and consequently enhances learning capacity. The memory of aging rats is rejuvenated by giving them a combination of acetyl l carnitine and lipoic acid.
  • Acetyl l carnitine is a promising nutrient for those with diabetic neuropathy.
  • This nutrient could be helpful in chemotherapy induced peripheral neuropathy.
  • May reduce alcohol-induced cellular damage to organs.
  • May be helpful in geriatric patients with mild depression.
  • Acetyl l carnitine improves the function of mitochondria, the organelles within cells that are involved in energy production.
  • May be effective in the therapy of acute and early chronic Peyronie's disease.
  • May help individuals with degenerative cerebellar ataxia.
  • Acetyl l carnitine is suitable for clinical use in the reduction of neuronal death after peripheral nerve trauma.
  • May be helpful in those with Alzheimer's disease. Acetyl l carnitine protects against amyloid-beta neurotoxicity.As always, we strongly advise you do your own research and more importantly consult your own medical professional before commencing any use of this or any other dietary supplement .This statement has not been evaluated by the FDA. This is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease>L Carnitine is derived from the lysine and methionine amino acids. It is mainly synthesized in the liver and the kidneys, and must be transported for use to other tissues in the body. It is found in highest concentration in tissues that use fatty acids as the main dietary fuel, such as the skeletal and cardiac muscles.


Assists removal of ammonia from central nervous system. DOSAGE : 500mg PER DAY OR AS DIRECTEDAlpha-ketoglutaric (AKG) is an organic acid that is important for the proper metabolism of all essential amino acids and the transfer of cellular energy in the citric acid cycle. It is a precursor to glutamic acid, the non-essential amino acid involved in protein synthesis and the regulation of blood glucose levels. In combination with L-glutamate, AKG can reduce levels of ammonia formed in the brain, muscles and kidneys, as well as help balance the body’s nitrogen chemistry and prevent nitrogen excess in body tissues and fluids. Individuals with high protein intake, bacterial infections, or gastrointestinal dysbiosis may benefit from supplemental AKG to help balance ammonia levels and protect tissues.Alpha-ketoglutaric acid (a-KG) is a naturally-occurring chemical, formed primarily as part of the citric acid cycle inside cells. One of its most important functions is to detoxify ammonia from tissues of the central nervous system. In the brain and central nervous system, alpha-keto combines with ammonia to form glutamic acid and then glutamine. Glutamine crosses the brain-blood barrier and transports the ammonia out of the brain. Alpha-ketoglutaric also scavenges nitrogen released by the catabolism of amino acids, thereby balancing the body’s nitrogen chemistry and preventing nitrogen overload in body tissues and fluids.

As a result of excessive protein ingestion or poor amino acid metabolism, excess nitrogen and ammonia can accumulate in cell tissue. Bacterial infections and intestinal dysbiosis can also elevate ammonia levels in the body. High levels of ammonia or nitrogen in the body can deplete the supply of alpha-keto, allowing ammonia to reach toxic levels. The consequences of excess ammonia (hyperammonemia) may include headaches (migraine), fatigue, irritability, nausea, and diarrhea. Ammonia can attack lipid membranes such as the myelin sheath of neurons. Chronically elevated ammonia in brain tissues can lead to mental confusion and decreased cognitive abilities.

Individuals with high protein intake, problems in nitrogen detoxification or intestinal dysbiosis may benefit from supplemental alpha-ketoglutaric as a central nervous system detoxifier.

Other conditions associated with elevated ammonia levels include:
  • Autism Spectrum disorders
  • Excess aluminum exposure
  • Magnesium deficiency
  • Manganese deficiency
  • Liver disease (cirrhosis)
  • Reyes syndrome
  • Urea cycle dysfunctions
  • Exposure to toxic nitrogen chemicals such as amines, hydrazines, ammonium compounds.
Other functions of alpha-ketoglutaric which may suffer as a result of depletion include: Production of cellular energy via the chemical transfer of energy during the citric acid cycle. (Alpha-ketoglutaric has been found to be helpful in alleviating fatigue and increasing stamina.) Formation of carnitine, necessary for proper metabolism of fats. (Inadequate carnitine may result in elevated triglycerides.) Formation of a biologically active coenyzme form of vitamin B3.

Alpha Lipoic Acid (ALA)

Alpha Lipoic Acid serves as a coenzyme in the energy production process in the cells which can provide quick bursts of energy. Alpha Lipoic Acid is unique in that it is both water and fat soluble which allows it to enter all parts of the cell to neutralize free radicals. Alpha Lipoic Acid contributes to invigorating mental and physical energy and a reduction in muscle fatigue. Dr. Lester Packer, a leading researcher in the area of antioxidants and a professor of molecular and cell biology at the University of California at Berkeley says "Alpha-Lipoic acid could have far-reaching consequences in the search for prevention and therapy of chronic degenerative diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease" .... "and because it’s the only antioxidant that can easily get into the brain, it could be useful in preventing damage from a stroke". Common uses for supplemental alpha Lipoic Acid:

Suggested dosage for R-Alpha Lipoic Acid is 100 mg two to three times daily. · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · May be useful in relieving syptoms of stomatopyrosis, or Burning Mouth Syndrome (BMS).Important for regulating aspects of the immune system, in particular immune cells called T-lymphocytes. Because both alpha lipoic acid and dihydrolipoic acid are antioxidants, their combined actions give them greater antioxidant potency than any natural antioxidant now known. Easily absorbed when taken orally and once inside cells is quickly converted to its most potent form, dihydrolipoic acid. Not only does it act as an antioxidant itself, it also stimulates production of glutathione (an antioxidant produced by the body), giving cells a double dose of antioxidant. Prevents tissue damage and death after a heart attack. Significantly increase survival in rats that have suffered a stroke if given before the stroke occurs. Recycles and enhances the effects of other antioxidants such as Vitamin E and Vitamin C. Inhibits Glycation which is responsible for accelerated tissue damage. Chelates (grabs) heavy metals and binds them reducing these oxidants from blood system. May help improve memory. May help reduce LDL (bad) blood cholesterol. Neutralizes free radicals. Unlike Vitamin C which is water soluble and Vitamin E which is fat soluble, alpha Lipoic Acid is both water and fat soluble which allows it to enter all parts of the cell to neutralize free radicals. Important for the production of energy inside the cell by utilizing sugar to produce energy contributing to mental and physical stamina. May help prevent the onset of type 2 diabetes. May play a role in controlling blood sugar. Currently used in Europe to treat peripheral nerve degeneration (neuropathy) resulting from diabetes.

L Arginine

As always, we strongly advise you do your own research and more importantly consult your own medical professional before commencing any use of this or any other dietary supplement .This statement has not been evaluated by the FDA. This is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any diseaseResearch studies document that nitric oxide from Arginine has a positive effect increasing muscle mass.
  • When test animals were given extra Arginine the animals sarcomeres, or muscle fibres, increase in diameter.
  • In addition to Nitric Oxide production increased muscle growth was observed.
  • Muscle fibre growth occurred at an accelerated rate.
  • L-Arginine is in most natural Sexual performance FormulasThere is abundant evidence that the endothelium plays a crucial role in the maintenance of vascular tone and structure.
One of the major endothelium-derived vasoactive mediators is nitric oxide (NO), an endogenous messenger molecule formed in healthy vascular endothelium from the amino acid precursor L-arginine. Endothelial dysfunction is caused by various cardiovascular risk factors, metabolic diseases, and systemic or local inflammation. One mechanism that explains the occurrence of endothelial dysfunction is the presence of elevated blood levels of asymmetric dimethyl arginine (ADMA) an L-arginine analogue that inhibits NO formation and thereby can impair vascular function. Supplementation with L-arginine has been shown to restore vascular function and to improve the clinical symptoms of various diseases associated with vascular dysfunction.

Recently, dietary supplements containing Arginine have become popular due to Arginine's nitric oxide producing ability, its ability to scavenge free radicals, as well as its ability to signal muscle cells, support healthy cholesterol, and enhance fat metabolism. Arginine helps regulate salt levels in the body.

For this reason it should be of interest to competing bodybuilders, as retaining water under the skin can make one looks smooth, bloated and washed out. The nitrogen retaining abilities of Arginine are well-known within the bodybuilding and scientific communities. Arginine is also believed to be crucial for muscle growth due to its vasodilation abilities, as well as its ability to participate in protein synthesis.

Because Arginine is a precursor of nitric oxide [which is responsible for vasodilation it is often used to enhance the female sexual experience and for supporting healthy male sexual function.Arginine is necessary for the execution of many physiological processes. These physiological processes include the removal of toxic waste products from the body, and immune system defences.

Arginine increases muscle protein synthesis. L Arginine is an Essential amino acid that the body cannot make naturally. There is abundant evidence that the endothelium plays a crucial role in the maintenance of vascular tone and structure. One of the major endothelium-derived vasoactive mediators is nitric oxide (NO), an endogenous messenger molecule formed in healthy vascular endothelium from the amino acid precursor L-arginine. Endothelial dysfunction is caused by various cardiovascular risk factors, metabolic diseases, and systemic or local inflammation. One mechanism that explains the occurrence of endothelial dysfunction is the presence of elevated blood levels of asymmetric dimethyl arginine (ADMA) an L-arginine analogue that inhibits NO formation and thereby can impair vascular function. Supplementation with L-arginine has been shown to restore vascular function and to improve the clinical symptoms of various diseases associated with vascular dysfunction.

L – arginine alpha ketoglutamate bitatrate

It goes without saying that we don't produce "flavor of the month" supplements.. AAKG is no exception and stands atop an exciting new class of extremely powerful, drug-free Nitric Oxide (NO) enhancers. Potent, Arginine Alpha-Ketoglutarate increase strength, stamina, and vigor and speed your muscle growth and recovery. Nitric Oxide & the power of hemodilationNitric Oxide is the key molecule used by your body to transport oxygen, increase blood flow and deliver nutrients to skeletal muscle. This process is called "hemodilation". When hemodilation is accelerated, and best of all SUSTAINED as Nitro AKG does, you'll start to see some amazing things happen to your body. The positive changes begin in as little as one week... and by the one month mark, you could be seeing muscle fullness and hardness like never before from a drug-free compound. Also, look for increased strength and markedly improved stamina (and not of just the athletic variety). L-Arginine & Nitric OxideWhen it comes to isolated amino acids, it has long been known that very high dosages (typically, 10-15 grams) of L-Arginine taken on an empty stomach can boost short term Nitric Oxide and Growth Hormone (GH) levels. Unfortunately, L-Arginine is not very suitable for use as a long term NO elevation agent due to its inherent limitations. Even for GH release, the frequent high dosages required, unpleasant taste, stomach upset, etc. make following an effective regimen impractical, if not flat out impossible for most. The technological breakthrough of A-AKGEnter a new, state-of-the-art compound called A-AKGAnd the results?As alluded to earlier, when used as directed (easy to follow, detailed instructions are included) the overall positive effects of AAKG are extremely wide reaching in scope and often nothing short of phenomenal. Best of all, AAKG is free of the negative side-effects seen with anabolic steroids, clenbuterol, Viagra and other common drug based performance and physique enhancers.

DOSAGE: 3gm in water / juice before bed
  • Creates a "Continuous Muscle Pump
  • Signals Muscle Growth - Speeds Recovery.
  • Increases Strength, Stamina & Sexual Vigor (Arginine Alpha-Ketoglutarate) which is not only extremely well tolerated by the body, but has such a vastly superior uptake and retention profile that it makes plain L-Arginine seem akin to a 1973 Ford Escort in comparison to a new, fully loaded Mustang..

L-Arginine L-Pyroglutamate (APG)

Hypersensitivity to any component of the preparation.

Children, pregnant women and nursing mothers should avoid taking arginine pyroglutamate supplements.

Arginine pyroglutamate is generally well tolerated. Minor gastrointestinal complaints have been noted.

OVERDOSAGE:There are no known reports of overdosage.

The usual recommended dose is 500 to 1000 milligrams daily. A 500 milligram dose delivers about 150 milligrams of L-arginine and about 350 milligrams of pyroglutamate.
The effects of piracetam are thought to be mediated through effects on membrane fluidity in the brain. Further, some pyrrolidone-nootropic agents appear to interact with metabotropic glutamate receptors. It is not known whether pyroglutamate has any of these activities.

Little is known in detail about the pharmacokinetics of arginine pyroglutamate. Arginine pyroglutamate gets absorbed across the small intestine and is transported by the portal circulation to the liver, where both L-arginine and pyroglutamate enter into various metabolic pathways. Some pyroglutamate appears to pass into the brain.

Arginine pyroglutamate may help improve cognition (e.g. verbal memory) in the aged, though more research is required to confirm this.

The primary claim made for this arginine salt of pyroglutamic acid relates to cognitive enhancement. It is asserted by some that this substance can help overcome memory defects induced by alcohol abuse and in those with some forms of dementia. Some use the supplement in Italy to treat alcoholism, senility and mental retardation. While such sweeping use is unwarranted based on current findings, there are data that suggest a cognitive-enhancing role for arginine pyroglutamate, though how significant a role is far from established. Some animal studies show that the substance has positive effects in cortical and cholinergic mechanisms and that it has cognition-enhancing properties. And in one double-blind study of aged human subjects, verbal memory was said to be improved in those taking arginine pyroglutamate compared with controls who received placebo.


Arginine pyroglutamate is reputed to have cognition-enhancing activity. The activity is attributed to pyroglutamate.

Since the action of arginine pyroglutamate is unclear, its mechanism of action is entirely speculative. However, pyroglutamate is structurally related to the drug piracetam, and more is known about piracetam's activity. Piracetam belongs to a class of drugs known as nootropics. The term "nootropic," from the Greek, means "acting on the mind." Piracetam, like pyroglutamate, is a pyrrolidone. Piracetam and related nootropics facilitate learning and memory in animal models, although human studies give mixed results except perhaps in dyslexia.

Arginine pyroglutamate, which is comprised of the amino acid L-arginine and the imino acid pyroglutamate, is a water-soluble substance.

Apg as the focus of world-wide attention in 1981 when Italian researcher A. Isidori, M.D., and his colleagues of the University of Rome determined that a combination of 1200 milligrams L-Lysine and 1200 milligrams L-Arginine L-Pyroglutamate when given orally to a group of 15 male volunteers between the ages of 15 and 20 was more than 10 times more effective at increasing blood levels human growth hormone than taking only the amino acid L-Arginine by itself (yielding a average net HGH increase of more than 700%). According to these researchers, "we could demonstrate that the association of the two amino acids does result in the release of biologically active HGH able to affect peripheral cellular receptors and thus cell growth in general.

Arginine pyroglutamate is the L-arginine salt of pyroglutamic acid. It is also known as pirglutargine and arginine pidolate. Arginine pyroglutamate is a delivery form of pyroglutamate. Pyroglutamate is formed in the body by the cyclization of the amino acid glutamic acid and is found naturally in plant and animal products, including the brain. Pyroglutamate is also known as 2-oxo-pyrrolidone carboxylic acid or PCA and 5-oxoproline. Pyroglutamate is an intermediate of the gamma-glutamyl cycle of glutathione synthesis and degradation.


A collaboration between Chinese, Korean, and Australian scientists at Sydney's Garvan Institute indicates berberine could be helpful. They say "Our studies in animal models of diabetes show that berberine acts in part by activating an enzyme in the muscle and liver that is involved in improving sensitivity of the tissue to insulin. This in turn helps lower blood sugar levels. In addition, it seems berberine can help reduce body weight". "Berberine has been used for decades, if not centuries, with few reported side effects. Given the limitations of existing medicines we are excited to have evidence that berberine may be a helpful new treatment for type 2 diabetes; however, despite its widespread use in traditional medicine practices, it will still have to be evaluated properly following the defined clinical trials process", said Professor James, head of the Garvan's Diabetes & Obesity Research Program and co-author of the Diabetes paper.

Berberine and Diabetes

Berberine may be helpful in maintaining healthy blood sugar and cholesterol levels in those with type 2 diabetes. Dr. Guang Ning, of Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine in Shanghai and colleagues randomized 116 diabetes patients to receive one gram of berberine daily or placebo for 3 months. Average hemoglobin A1C -- a measure of long-term blood sugar control -- dropped from 7.5 percent to 6.6 percent in those taking berberine supplements. Patients taking berberine also showed significant reductions in total and "bad" LDL cholesterol. Blood pressure also fell in patients taking berberine. Patients on berberine lost 2.3 kilograms (5.1 pounds), on average, compared to 1.3 kilograms (2.9 pounds) for the placebo group. Patients taking berberine were more likely to have a side effect of constipation, and two patients in the berberine group had their dosage reduced for this reason. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, July 2008.

Berberine, blood sugar, cholesterol, and blood pressure:
Berberine, a natural product, induces G1-phase cell cycle arrest and caspase-3-dependent apoptosis in human prostate carcinoma cells.

Berberine Research UpdateMol Cancer Ther. 2006 Feb;5(2):296-308. Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Volker Hall 557, 1670 University Boulevard, Birmingham, AL Berberine, a naturally occurring isoquinoline alkaloid, has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory and antitumor properties in some in vitro systems. Here, we report that in vitro treatment of androgen-insensitive (DU145 and PC-3) and androgen-sensitive (LNCaP) prostate cancer cells with berberine inhibited cell proliferation and induced cell death in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. The effectiveness of berberine in checking the growth of androgen-insensitive, as well as androgen-sensitive, prostate cancer cells without affecting the growth of normal prostate epithelial cells indicates that it may be a promising candidate for prostate cancer therapy.

Antimicrobial activity of berberine alone and in combination with ampicillin or oxacillin against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.J Med Food. 2005 Winter;8(4):454-61. Department of Food and Nutrition, Kunsan National University, Kunsan.

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteria have been responsible for substantial morbidity and mortality in hospitals because they usually have multidrug resistance. Some natural products are candidates as new antibiotic substances. In the present study, we investigated the antimicrobial activity of berberine, the main antibacterial substance of Coptidis rhizoma (Coptis chinensis Franch) and Phellodendri cortex (Phellodendron amurense Ruprecht), against clinical isolates of MRSA, and the effects of berberine on the adhesion to MRSA and intracellular invasion into human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs). Berberine showed antimicrobial activity against all tested strains of MRSA. These results suggest that berberine may have antimicrobial activity and the potential to restore the effectiveness of beta-lactam antibiotics against MRSA, and inhibit the MRSA adhesion and intracellular invasion in HGFs.

Hepatobiliary excretion of berberine.Drug Metab Dispos. 2004 Apr;32(4):405-12.

To investigate the detailed pharmacokinetics of berberine and its mechanisms of hepatobiliary excretion, an in vivo microdialysis coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography was performed. In the control group, rats received berberine alone; in the drug-treated group, 10 min before berberine administration, the rats were injected with cyclosporin A (CsA), a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor; quinidine, both organic cation transport (OCT) and P-gp inhibitors; SKF-525A (proadifen), a cytochrome P450 inhibitor; and probenecid to inhibit the glucuronidation. The results indicate that berberine displays a linear pharmacokinetic phenomenon in the dosage range from 10 to 20 mg kg(-1), since a proportional increase in the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) of berberine was observed in this dosage range. Moreover, berberine was processed through hepatobiliary excretion against a concentration gradient based on the bile-to-blood distribution ratio (AUC(bile)/AUC(blood)); the active berberine efflux might be affected by P-gp and OCT since coadministration of berberine and CsA or quinidine at the same dosage of 10 mg kg(-1) significantly decreased the berberine amount in bile. In addition, berberine was metabolized in the liver with phase I demethylation and phase II glucuronidation, as identified by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Also, the phase I metabolism of berberine was partially reduced by SKF-525A treatment, but the phase II glucuronidation of berberine was not obviously affected by probenecid under the present study design.

Cytotoxic effects of Coptis chinensis and Epimedium sagittatum extracts and their major constituents (berberine, coptisine and icariin) on hepatoma and leukemia cell growth.Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2004 Jan-Feb;31(1-2):65-9.

The present study was conducted to evaluate the cytotoxic effects of Coptis chinensis and Epimedium sagittatum extracts and their major constituents on hepatoma and leukemia cells in vitro. Four human liver cancer cell lines, namely HepG2, Hep3B, SK-Hep1 and PLC/PRF/5, and four leukemia cell lines, namely K562, U937, P3H1 and Raji, were used in the present study. Of the two crude drugs, Coptis chinensis exhibited the strongest activity against SK-Hep1 and Raji cell lines. Icariin (the major compound of E. sagittatum) showed no inhibition of either the hepatoma or leukemia cell lines. The results of the present study suggest that the Coptis chinensis extract and its major constituents berberine and coptisine possess active antihepatoma and anti leukemia activities.

Effect of berberine on regression of pressure-overload induced cardiac hypertrophy in rats.Am J Chin Med. 2002;30(4):589-99.

Berberine is the basic chemical component of a Chinese herb, Coptis chinensis Franch (coptis), considered to be useful in treating some diseases of the cardiovascular system, such as hypertension and chronic heart failure (CHF). In this study, we investigate the inhibitory effect of berberine on experimental cardiac hypertrophy, which is regarded as a risk factor of CHF and other heart diseases. Forty-two male SD rats were divided into four groups: age-matched control, aortic banding model, berberine-treated group and captopril-treated group. Cardiac hypertrophy was induced by suprarenal abdominal aorta constriction (banding). The drugs were orally administered for 8 weeks starting from 4 weeks after surgery at dosage of berberine 10 mg/kg and captopril 50 mg/kg. Blood pressure (BP) was measured four times during the period of the experiment, and hemodynamic parameters, cardiac index, cell size of left ventricular myocardium and total protein of left ventricular tissue were detected 8 weeks after treatment with drugs. The data from the present study showed that: The BP of the aorta banded rats was increased compared with those of the normal and the age-matched control rats, and berberine showed no significant effect on it. After 8 weeks of treatment with berberine, the elevated left ventricular end diastolic pressure (LVEDP) was slightly decreased compared with the aortic banded rats. Meanwhile, the maximum rates of contraction and relaxation (+/- dp/dtmax) was increased and the time to reach the point of maximum rate from beginning of contraction (t-dp/dt) was shortened, indicating that the functions of heart, both contraction and relaxation, were improved. Cardiac growth was inhibited by treatment with berberine. Both whole heart and left ventricular weight were notably decreased compared with the banded rats. The cell size of left ventricular myocardium was significantly reduced and the total protein of left ventricular tissue was slightly down-regulated by treatment with berberine. These data suggest that berberine can improve abnormal cardiac function and can prevent the development of left ventricular hypertrophy induced by pressure-overload. This indicates that it may have therapeutic potential in the treatment of CHF.

Efficacy and safety of berberine for congestive heart failure secondary to ischemic or idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy.Am J Cardiol. 2003 Jul 15;92(2):173-6.

This study was designed to assess the efficacy and safety of berberine for chronic congestive heart failure. One hundred fifty-six patients with CHF and >90 ventricular premature complexes (VPCs) and/or nonsustained ventricular tachycardia (VT) on 24-hour Holter monitoring were randomly divided into 2 groups. All patients were given conventional therapy for congestive heart failure, consisting of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, digoxin, diuretics, and nitrates. Patients in the treatment group (n = 79) were also given berberine 1.2 to 2.0 g/day. The remaining 77 patients were given placebo. Symptoms, a 6-minute walk test, left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF), frequency and complexity of VPCs, and quality of life were assessed after 8 weeks of treatment and during a mean 24-month follow-up. After treatment with berberine, there was a significantly greater increase in LVEF, exercise capacity, improvement of the dyspnea-fatigue index, and a decrease of frequency and complexity of VPCs compared with the control group. There was a significant decrease in mortality in the berberine -treated patients during long-term follow-up (7 patients receiving treatment died vs 13 on placebo). Proarrhythmia was not observed, and there were no apparent side effects. Thus, berberine improved quality of life and decreased VPCs and mortality in patients with congestive heart failure.

Effect of berberine on bone mineral density in SAMP6 as a senile osteoporosis model.Biol Pharm Bull. 2003 Jan;26(1):110-1.

The effects of berberine in senescence accelerated mice P6 (SAMP6) were investigated to learn whether the alkaloid affects bone mineral density (BMD). Oral administration of berberine (10 mg/kg/d) to male and female mice for 22 weeks resulted in an increase in BMD in both sexes. A decreased concentration of deoxypyridinoline (Dpd) in urine was only observed in female mice. There was no effect on body or tibia weight or on the concentration of procollagen type I carboxyterminal extension peptide (PICP) in serum.

A comparative study on the anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive and antipyretic effects of isoquinoline alkaloids from the roots of Turkish Berberis species.Life Sci. 2002 Dec 27;72(6):645-57.

Roots and barks of various Berberis species are used as folk remedy for the treatment of various inflammatory diseases such as lumbago, rheumatism and to reduce fever. Six isoquinoline alkaloids namely berberine, berbamine, palmatine, oxyacanthine, magnoflorine, and columbamine were isolated as the main components of alkaloidal fraction from the roots of Turkish Berberis species and effects were studied using various in vivo models in mice. All alkaloids inhibited inflammations in varying degrees, among them berberine, berbamine and palmatine were shown to possess significant and dose-dependent inhibitory activity against serotonin-induced hind paw oedema both on oral and topical applications and acetic acid-induced increase in vascular permeability on oral administration. Moreover, these three alkaloids were also shown to possess dose-dependent antinociceptive activity, which assessed by using the model based on the inhibition of p-benzoquinone-induced writhing movements as well as antipyretic activity on FCA-induced increased rectal temperature on subacute administration. However, all alkaloids induced gastric lesions in varying degrees.

Inhibitory effects of berberine on IK1, IK, and HERG channels of cardiac myocytes.Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2001 Feb;22(2):125-31.

To study the effects of berberine on inward rectifier potassium current (IK1) and outward delayed rectifier potassium current (IK) of guinea pig ventricular myocytes, and on human ether-a-go-go related gene (HERG) channel expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Berberine prolonged action potential duration (APD) and inhibited IK1 and IK in a concentration-dependent manner. Berberine 100 micromol/L increased APD90 from (450 +\- 48) ms to (888 +\- 90) ms, and inhibited IK1 by 65 %. Berberine 50 micromol/L inhibited IK by 57 %, IKtail by 53 %. Berberine produced a voltage-dependent block on IK that increased with stronger depolarization, and once all channels were activated, there was no further block at positive potentials. Berberine blocked the HERG channels potently with an IC50 value of approximately 75 micromol/L. This block was voltage-dependent, suggesting that it probably bind to either open or inactivated HERG channels. Berberine prolonged APD and possessed blocking effect on IK1, IK, and HERG channel expressed in Xenopus oocytes. The antiarrhythmic mechanism of berberine is related to its inhibitory effects on IK1, IK, and HERG channel.

Cardiovascular actions of berberine.Cardiovasc Drug Rev. 2001 Fall;19(3):234-44.

Berberine, is an alkaloid from Hydrastis canadensis L., Chinese herb Huanglian, and many other plants. It is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine as an antimicrobial in the treatment of dysentery and infectious diarrhea. This manuscript describes cardiovascular effects of berberine and its derivatives, tetrahydroberberine and 8-oxoberberine. Berberine has positive inotropic, negative chronotropic, antiarrhythmic, and vasodilator properties. Both derivatives of berberine have antiarrhythmic activity. Some cardiovascular effects of berberine and its derivatives are attributed to the blockade of K+ channels (delayed rectifier and K(ATP)) and stimulation of Na+ -Ca(2+) exchanger. Berberine has been shown to prolong the duration of ventricular action potential. Its vasodilator activity has been attributed to multiple cellular mechanisms. The cardiovascular effects of berberine suggest its possible clinical usefulness in the treatment of arrhythmias and/or heart failure.


With literally hundreds of different supplements available and so many that are based on bogus claims and ridiculous hype, it's a challenge to find even one that delivers results. If you've rummaged through the garbage of the supplement scrap heap, you know how difficult it is to find solid science or real-world proof. Beta-alanine.

The science behind beta-alanine makes sense and it works. In reading this article, you will understand how beta-alanine works. You will also learn how to maximize its use and how it can help you safely work out much harder and longer. Used properly, beta-alanine can take your training and results to new levels, helping you set personal records and add lean mass. First lets start with some basic background information on beta-alanine.

is an exception. This supplement actually lives up to its claim: beta-alanine efficacy is backed by major university, peer-reviewed studies performed on humans, not the typical cell or rat studies upon which many supplement manufacturers generally base claims.

Background On Beta-Alanine:
Although only recently brought to the forefront, beta-alanine was discovered over 100 years ago. Also known as 3-aminopropanoic acid, it is a non-essential amino acid and is the only naturally occurring beta-amino acid. Not to be confused with alanine, beta- alanine is classified as a non-proteinogenic amino acid as it is not used in the building of proteins.

The greatest natural dietary sources of beta-alanine are believed to be obtained through ingesting the beta-alanine containing dipeptides: carnosine, anserine and balenine, rather than directly ingesting beta-alanine. These dipeptides are commonly found in protein rich foods such as chicken, beef, pork and fish.

However, obtaining beta-alanine through these dipeptides is not the only way, as our bodies can synthesize it in the liver from the catabolism of pyrimidine nucleotides which are broken down into uracil and thymine and then metabolized into beta-alanine and B-aminoisobutyrate. Of course, it can also be ingested through direct supplementation which is the focus of this article.

Recently, researchers began studying beta-alanine and examining its effects on exercise performance and lean body mass. We owe a great deal of credit and respect to the scientists who are in the trenches doing the work and publishing the research on beta-alanine.

If it wasn't for them, great supplements like beta-alanine and creatine might never have seen the light of day. Their ongoing research has revealed how to properly use these compounds and how to safely and effectively maximize their benefits.

One of the key scientists pioneering the performance research on beta-alanine is Dr. Roger Harris. His name may or may not sound familiar, but it should, as he is the same man that brought creatine to the bodybuilding world with his groundbreaking study in 1992.

It looks like the good doctor has found another juggernaut of a supplement in beta-alanine. However, he is not alone. In the last two years, highly respected research scientist Dr. Jeffrey Stout has been in a frenzy publishing and compiling research on beta-alanine and doesn't look to be slowing down any time soon. Other notable researchers who have been publishing research on beta-alanine include Dr. Tallon, Dr. Hill and Dr. Kim.

How Can Beta-Alanine Benefit Me?

Below is a list of the benefits of beta-alanine. But before we go on to explain how beta-alanine works, you must first understand what's going on in our body's during exercise that limits our gains and muscular performance.

Benefits of Beta-Alanine as supported by Scientific Studies:
  • Boosts explosive muscular strength and power output.
  • Increases muscle mass.
  • Boosts muscular anaerobic endurance.
  • Increases aerobic endurance.
  • Increases exercise capacity so you can train harder and longer.
What Stops Us From Reaching Our Full Potential In Making Strength, Endurance And Muscle Mass Gains? When we exercise, especially when it's high intensity exercise, our bodies accumulate a large amount of hydrogen ions (H+), causing our muscles' pH to drop (become more acidic). This process is occurring whether you feel a burn or not.

The breakdown of ATP and the subsequent rise in H+ concentrations occur in all of our energy systems but H+ buildup is most prevalent in an energy system called glycolysis, which also produces lactic acid. At physiological pH, lactic acid dissociates H+ and is the primary source of released H+ ions during exercise, causing pH to drop.

It is the released H+ from lactic acid that causes muscular performance problems, not the leftover lactate ions as many incorrectly believe. While lactic acid is the primary source of released H+, it is not the only source. H+ ions are also being released at a rapid rate when you break down the high energy compound ATP during exercise. With the presence of many sources during energy production releasing H+, pH drops quickly.

As our muscles pH quickly drops, so does their ability to contract forcibly and maintain a high level of performance throughout your workout session. Not being able to perform and maintain forceful muscular contractions and push your body to the limit during your workout session, seriously hampers your ability to maximally overload your muscles and force new muscle gains.

In a nutshell, H+ causes your muscles pH to drop, in turn decreasing your strength and causing you to fatigue faster. These limitations stop you from adequately overloading your muscles and forcing NEW muscle gains.

Strength, Endurance And Muscle Mass?
To understand how beta-alanine works to fight the drop in pH within our muscle, you must first understand how carnosine works. The reason being is, beta-alanine's performance benefits are not direct but realized through its ability to boost the synthesis of carnosine. Background On Carnosine The Russian scientist Gulewitsch was the first to identify carnosine in 1900. Eleven years later, he would discover and identify its constituent amino acids, beta-alanine and histidine. Seven years later, Barger and Tutin and Baumann and Ingvaldsen confirmed Gulewitsch's findings. However, it wasn't until 1938 that the first research on carnosine and its effects on muscle buffering were published.

Carnosine is a naturally occurring di-peptide that is found in both type 1 and type 2 muscle fibers, but is in significantly higher concentrations in type 2 fibers. Type 2 muscle fibers are primarily used in high intensity strength workouts and are most responsive to muscular growth.

How Does Carnosine Work?
There are a handful of ways carnosine is thought to impact performance but its most studied function, and the focus of this article, is its role as an intracellular buffer. Carnosine helps stabilize muscular pH by soaking up hydrogen ions (H+) that are released at an accelerated rate during exercise.

Our bodies work to keep our pH in balance by utilizing various buffering systems. Buffers largely work by soaking up H+ to maintain optimal pH balance, which we need to function most effectively. As mentioned above, our muscles function best in a specific pH range. When pH drops below that range, so does muscular performance. By helping to keep us in a more optimal pH range, our muscles can continue to contract forcibly for a longer time.

There are a handful of buffering systems that work in our bodies. Some maintain pH in extra cellular fluids (ECF) outside of the cell, while others perform their duties in intracellular fluids (ICF) inside the cell and some perform in both.

Our focus in this article is on exercise performance and, as mentioned above, the primary source of H+ released during exercise is from lactic acid and ATP breakdown. Take a guess where this breakdown and release of H+ is occurring?

If you guessed inside our muscles or intracellular, you would be correct. As a result, the first line of defense in absorbing the H+ is going to be the cell from intracellular buffers such as carnosine, not from extra cellular buffers.

Aside from carnosine being just where we need it, buffering H+ inside our cells, it has additional, unique attributes that make it really shine. Carnosine is unique; in that, other natural buffering systems our bodies use are also used in many other cellular reactions aside from buffering, watering down much of their buffering abilities.

However, what makes carnosine really exciting, is that by supplementing with extra beta-alanine, we can specifically and dramatically increase carnosine levels. How much, you ask?

Researchers have shown that when supplementing with beta-alanine for just 4 weeks, we can increase our carnosine concentration by 42-65%. Longer beta-alanine studies going up to 10-12 weeks, show carnosine concentrations increased up to 80%. This is a tremendous increase in an already powerful intracellular buffer.

It is this large increase in buffering capacity within our muscles that is largely responsible for the strength, lean body mass, power and muscular endurance gains that researchers are seeing from beta-alanine studies. Summary:By boosting carnosine concentrations, with beta-alanine, our type 2 muscle fibers can soak up more H+ and stay in an optimal pH range. By keeping our type 2 muscle fibers in an optimal pH range, they are better able to maintain maximal strength and endurance throughout your workout session and bring on new muscle gains Dosage and Use :The best time to take Beta-Alanine is before your workout and if you only take 500mg (.5gm daily then that is definitely the time you want to take it. If you don’t workout everyday, you should still take at least one capsule sometime during the day. If you are taking more than 500mg daily, as in a 15 week cycle, then spread out the capsules you take throughout the day as much as possible, with one dosage always being before your workout, if you workout on that day.

Carnitine (vitamin Bt)

Carnitine and lysine. Carnitine is the generic term for a number of compounds that include L-carnitine, L-acetylcarnitine, acetyl-L-carnitine, and L-propionyl carnitine. Carnitine can be synthesised within the body from lysine or methionine. As with all amino acids used directly in the metabolism, carnitine exists in the left-handed form. This isomer is expressed as L-carnitine, as it is usually marketed. Carnitine is eaten in the diet in red meats and dairy products, including breast milk, and is also made in the body from breaking down muscle protein and converting it to carnitine.

Carnitine is a nutrient responsible for the transport of long-chain fatty acids into the energy-producing centers of the cells (known as the mitochondria). Carnitine plays a critical role in metabolizing a number of other important substances as well, which helps to explain why it holds promise for so many disorders. Carnitine transports fats into the mitochondria, the cellular powerhouse, where these fats are converted into an energy source for the body. Our heart and skeletal muscle tissue rely on fat utilization as a source of energy, and also to spare glycogen. Carnitine helps the body convert fatty acids into energy, which is used primarily for muscular activities throughout the body. The body produces carnitine in the liver and kidneys and stores it in the skeletal muscles, heart, brain, and sperm. Carnitine can also act as an antioxidant and appears to play a role in maintaining the health of nerves and protecting the liver and kidneys from the toxicity of drugs. is a non-essential amino acid produced in the liver, brain and the kidneys from the essential amino acids methionine.

Carnitine (vitamin Bt) functions, uses, and health benefits.

Carnitine helps transport fatty acids to the powerhouse of the cell. Fatty acids are the main fuel source for heart and skeletal muscle. Long-chain fatty acids require l-carnitine to transport them across the inner membranes of the mitochondria, wherein their metabolism produces bioenergy. L-carnitine can remove short-chain and medium-chain fatty acids from the mitochondria in order to maintain coenzyme A levels in these organelles. L-Carnitine also facilitates the metabolism of carbohydrates and enhances the rate of oxidative phosphorylation. L-Carnitine works synergistically with CO-Q10, an antioxidant and energy co-factor that is found in the inner membrane of the mitochondria.

Carnitine plays a critical role in metabolizing a number of other important substances as well, which helps to explain why it holds promise for so many disorders. Carnitine mediates the transport of medium/long-chain fatty acids across mitochondrial membranes, facilitating their oxidation with subsequent energy production. Carnitine may have neuroprotective effects. This means that the strong antioxidant properties of acetyl-L-carnitine may help to prevent oxidative damage to nerve cells that are important for brain functioning.

The strongest evidence for the use of supplemental L-carnitine may be in the management of cardiac ischemia and peripheral arterial disease. It may also more generally be indicated for cardioprotection. It lowers triglyceride levels and increases levels of HDL-cholesterol in some. It is used with some benefit in those with primary and secondary carnitine deficiency syndromes. There is less evidence to support arguments that carnitine is indicated in liver, kidney and immune disorders or in diabetes and Alzheimer's disease.

Carnitine is used for a small percentage of people who are at risk of liver damage from AEDs and is used for children with multiple seizure types who are taking multiple AEDs. Carnitine is used in emergency situations where there is liver damage caused by valproate, or in cases of valproate overdose. It is used in rare diseases involving problems of the transport of carnitine into the mitochondria.

L-carnitine has been marketed as a weight loss supplement, because the primary function of carnitine in human cells is to burn fat as a source of energy. Carnitine supplementation may actually help increase energy, burn fat more efficiently and may improve heart and liver health all at the same time.

Carnitine is recommended as a daily supplement to help maintain blood lipid profile and promote fatty acid utilization within heart muscle. People who take l-carnitine supplements soon after suffering a heart attack may be less likely to suffer a subsequent heart attack, die of heart disease, experience chest pain and abnormal heart rhythms, or develop congestive heart failure. Some studies have shown Carnitine may reduce the pain and complications of lack of oxygen to the heart and improve exercise tolerance in people with existing heart disease.

The function of carnitine is to help the body use stored fat as fuel. Carnitine is helpful for improving exercise performance. Supplementation with carnitine has been said to enhance lipid oxidation, increase VO2max and decrease the accumulation of lactic acid during exercise.

Carnitine reduces the incidence of angina and cardiac arrythmias as well as reduces the need for anti-angina and anti-arrythmic medications.

Acetyl-L-carnitine may be indicated for use in cases of mild Alzheimer's disease, dementia, Down's syndrome, recovery from stroke and for the management of various neuropathies.

Carnitine (vitamin Bt) dosage, intake, recommended daily allowance (RDA)

Carnitine is not an essential amino acid and, since it is not a vitamin or a mineral, no RDA or dietary reference intake (DRI) values have been established. The L-isomer of carnitine (L-carnitine) is the only physiologically useful form of carnitine. Recommended doses of l-carnitine supplements vary depending on the health condition being treated. The normal recommended dose appears to be 500 milligrams (MG) to 1,000 mg per day. Then gradually work up to 2 to 4 grams (2,000 to 4,000 mg) per day. Typical doses of supplemental acetyl-L-carnitine are between 500 mgs to 2 gms daily in divided doses. Doses of 2 to 6 grams per day are typically recommended for cardiovascular, sports performance and weight loss benefits. Infant formulas (including total parenteral nutrition solutions) that do not contain carnitine should be supplemented with carnitine to the levels found in human milk, 11.3 mg/L (70 mmol/L).

Sources of carnitine

Dietary sources of carnitine include foods of animal origin, such as meat and dairy products. Red meat (particularly lamb) and dairy products are the primary sources of carnitine. Carnitine can also be found in fish, poultry, tempeh (fermented soybeans), wheat, asparagus, avocados, and peanut butter. Cereals, fruits, and vegetables contain little or no carnitine. Carnitine can be manufactured in the body provided the requisite vitamins and minerals are also present. A typical Western diet supplies about 100mg of carnitine per day. It is found mostly in red meats and dairy products. Plant foods are not good sources of carnitine. In general, healthy adults do not require dietary carnitine as carnitine stores are replenished through endogenous synthesis from lysine and methionine in the liver and kidneys.

Carnitine deficiency

There are two types of carnitine deficiency, primary and secondary. In both primary and secondary carnintine deficiencies, increased dietary intake and supplements of carnitine can be beneficial. Although the exact mechanism is unknown, it is thought that flooding the body with high concentrations of carnitine assures that some carnitine are able to get into the cells. Carnitine deficiency occurs as a primary genetic defect of carnitine transport and secondary to a variety of genetic and acquired disorders. A person with primary carnitine deficiency has very low levels of carnitine in the blood due to a faulty carnitine transporter which prevents carnitine from getting into the cells where it is needed. The secondary form of carntine deficiency can arise secondary to metalobic disorders in the mitochondria. Blockage of metabolic pathways in the mitochondria leads to a build-up of acyl compounds. Infants are particularly susceptible to carnitine depletion, because the demands of tissue accretion associated with rapid growth exceed the ability of the infant to synthesize carnitine.

Carnitine overdose, toxicity, side effects

There have been no reports of toxicity from L-carnitine overdosage. The oral LD50 of L-carnitine in mice is 19.2 grams per kilogram. D-carnitine supplements should be avoided as they interfere with the natural form of L-carnitine and may produce undesirable side effects. L-carnitine supplementation may cause mild gastrointestinal symptoms, including nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps and diarrhea. Adverse effects may include transient nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps and diarrhea. Less frequent reactions may include body odour or gastrointestinal symptoms. Other rare side effects include increased appetite, body odor, and rash.

CLA Info What is it and where does it come from?

CLA is research proven to build muscle, reduce body fat, and induce an optimum cellular environment for improved health!

CLA occurs naturally in foods such as milk, cheese, beef, and lamb as well as many processed foods. One processed food in particular that's high in CLA is Cheez Wiz. But getting enough CLA from your diet for the preferred benefit would require considerable intake of these types of foods. This is not only impractical, but would also have a seriously negative impact on your metabolism due to the high caloric penalty you would pay.

Fatty Acid That Helps You Lose Fat.

Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA), is a naturally occurring free fatty acid found mainly in meat and dairy products, in small amounts. CLA was discovered by accident in 1978 by Michael W. Pariza at the University of Wisconsin while looking for mutagen formations in meat during cooking. What does it do and what scientific studies give evidence to support this?Since this research has surfaced, a more economical and efficient way to get the required CLA has been devised. Through advanced lipid technology, a CLA synthesizing process allows for precision intake through premeasured softgel capsules. This allows for precise CLA intake at determined time intervals without the high calorie food consumption. Not only has CLA been shown to increase muscle mass while reducing body fat, studies have also shown remarkable anti-catabolic, antioxidant, and immune enhancement benefits. All this from a structured lipid. A designer fat if you would.

For many years, performance nutrition experts basically dismissed fats, assuming they didn't have any useful role in nutrition. Instead, experts focused on the protein-sparing and energy-producing effects of carbohydrates, and studied how amino acids and various proteins might affect nitrogen retention, anabolism, and catabolism. Perhaps "inquiring minds" were influenced by the mass media's "all-fat-is-bad" campaign. But now the scales are tipping toward the contrary. Nutritional geniuses like The Zone author, Dr. Barry Sears have shown us how fatty acids are not only essential for proper health but also how the proper use of such compounds may have numerous positive effects. Dr. Sears is certain that fatty acids directly influence the body's growth-promoting hormones.

Although all the intricacies of CLA are not fully understood, it is widely accepted in the research community that CLA counterbalances the negative effects of linoleic acid and regulates fat and protein metabolism in animals. Pariza, director of the Food Research Institute at the University of Wisconsin said, "A growing body of data indicates that CLA is a newly recognized nutrient that functions to regulate energy retention and metabolism." CLA can best be described as a Growth Factor.

Food intake efficiency! CLA has been shown in animal studies to increase growth rate through increased feed efficiency. In controlled studies, animals that had their diets supplemented with CLA increased their body protein (muscle tissue) while at the same time, had a significant decrease in body fat. This all occurred in the CLA supplemented animals while their food intake was decreased. Their lean mass increased even though they were eating less! This indicates that CLA increases feed efficiency and also points to a potent nutrient repartitioning effect.

This significant change in body composition can also be attributed in part to CLA's effect on immune function. CLA has been shown to inhibit the lean tissue wasting caused by high levels of these cytokines.

Actual human studies are on the way with anticipation of similar outcomes. CLA may be the most significant bodybuilding nutrient discovered in this decade. With anti-catabolic effects rivaling even the strongest pharmaceutical compounds, CLA is a naturally occurring nutrient with the ability to help you pack on lean muscle, reduce body fat and at the same time possesses health promoting properties. Who needs it and what are some symptoms of deficiency?

To the athlete looking to add more muscle and drop body fat, CLA is a unique discovery that will make accomplishing this feat easier and faster, all the while having positive effects on immune function and antioxidant status. How much should be taken? Are there any side effects?

CLA is typically found in capsules or softgels between potencies between 600mg and 1000mg. All preliminary evidence shows that CLA is nontoxic and safe at recommended dosages. While this is powder RDA’s remain the same .

Collagen Supplement HCP

Over the years, collagen and HCP are becoming more often used in a variety of ways in the fields of aesthetics and medicine.

As you age, collagen levels decrease and break down within the skin surface producing looser and less elastic skin. You can see wrinkles and experience the "flabby skin" syndrome. In the past, synthesized or natural collagen has built a reputation as an anti-aging skin improver. Included in creams and lotions you apply it externally, in topical form, as a means of reducing wrinkles, plumping up thinning skin and providing you with a fresh, young look. It is highly recommended in this area of beautification.

Collagen supplements may improve the undesired appearance caused by collagen depletion with age. Recently, companies began offering ingestible collagen supplements that may be absorbed by the body. The collagen molecule historically has been considered too large to be absorbed but new advances have been noted in making collagen bioavailable. You can always also inject collagen. Lip injections puff up lips.

Europe has been using HCP for decades. They use collagen as both a dietary supplement and, in some cases, as an natural option for joint and bone health Research in Germany and Czechoslovakia found some preliminary evidence to support the ability of daily intake of HCP to decrease joint stiffness. Another small scientific study showed HCP did suppress bone decomposition in women with osteoporosis .Other evidence suggests that HCP may help athletes recover faster from intense exercise training or sports injuries.

Overall, research seems to indicate HCP supports healthy bones and cartilage, and encourages strong tissue that can help prevent sprains or strains. On the one hand, HCP is a "poor" protein source. It is low in the sulfur containing amino acids. On the other hand, however, HCP is a densely rich source of the primary amino acids that make up the collagen protein. These include glycine, proline and lysine as well as the two unusual amino acids: hydroxyproline, and hydroxyl sine. Certain scientists believe, HCP, as a concentrated source, facilitates nourishment of tissues such as cartilage, bones, tendons, ligaments and skin - the body's collagen-containing tissues.

A further point in collagen's favor is its price. HCP is less expensive than many joint-support supplements. This makes it more accessible. This is good news for the various health agencies. They say more and more people are at risk of developing this osteoporosis and osteoarthritis. Figures are continuing to climb. HCP can help reduce the risk and do so for people from all economic levels.

Although collagen primarily finds itself touted as a beauty aid, there are now studies showing HCP can be useful in promoting joint health, supporting cartilage and bones and helping athletes recover faster.DOSAGE: While there are no defined RDA’s and no negative effects associated with overdose or contraindications . A daily dosages of 3 to 5 grams dissolved in water or in capsule form should be basis for your digestive tolerance .Collagen is a structural and fibrous protein occurring naturally within the body. It makes up at least 75 percent of your skin. Collagen feeds and supports skin, bones, teeth, blood vessels and such connective tissue as cartilage, tendons, and ligaments. It supports the quick healing of wounds and keeping the skin soft and fresh in appearance. Hydrolyzed collagen Protein (HCP) or collagen hydrolysate, is simply a modified form of collagen.

Creatine Monohydrate

What is creatine?Visit any health food store or browse through a sports magazine and you'll probably come across creatine and, in particular, creatine supplements. But what is it and what does it do?

Creatine is produced naturally by the body and helps to improve muscles' performance during exercise. This improvement in performance should allow you to train at higher levels for certain sports and gain muscle.

Foods such as meat and fish provide much of the body's creatine and the rest is made in the body by the liver, kidneys and pancreas. It is stored in the muscles as phosphocreatine (you may find it referred to as PC) contributing to the body's energy stores used during intense exercise.Why take creatine supplements?Increasing the muscle stores of phosphocreatine by taking a creatine supplement theoretically improves the ability to maintain power output during intensive exercise. It is also thought to aid recovery between short bursts of activity. This effect could benefit your training program and provide an important edge when competing.

Taking creatine supplements can increase your muscle stores of phosphocreatine by roughly 20 per cent on average. However, the exact increase can vary depending on the individual - the range is somewhere between 10 per cent and 40 per cent.1

Increasing your muscle stores of creatine is particularly beneficial if you are involved in sports that involve short bursts of intense exercise. It can also help you maintain higher training volumes.Creatine and different types of physical performanceEvidence suggests that creatine supplementation is probably more useful for those sports whose activities require a good anaerobic performance.2 such activities include weight lifting, sprinting, football and rugby. There have been many studies to examine its effect in this area and over half of these have shown quite positive outcomes. Therefore, for those athletes whose sport requires strength combined with intense activity, this supplement could help.

However, for sports requiring mainly aerobic performance there is less evidence that creatine supplementation is helpful. So, for the endurance athletes - such as runners, cyclists and long distance swimmers - the case is not so strong. Nevertheless, a few studies have shown some improvement in performance.3 For example, a study at Louisiana State University found that creatine supplements delayed the onset of muscle fatigue in endurance athletes by boosting their lactate thresholds.4 So, for some aerobic sports, it may be useful.Will taking creatine supplements alter my body weight or body composition?Studies have shown that creatine supplementation does increase body weight and also has an effect on body composition.5,6 In particular it increases muscle mass and this effect has been found in both male and female athletes. Weight increases of up to 4kg have been reported after a period of six weeks with creatine supplementation.

It is thought that this weight gain occurs because increases in the concentration of creatine in the muscles has the effect of drawing water into the muscle cells, thus increasing cell volume. This increase in volume acts as an anabolic signal which helps to reduce protein breakdown and improves the body's usage of protein. The end result is an increase in lean body tissue.What's the best way to supplement the diet with creatine?The most extensively used form of supplement is creatine monohydrate. It is a white powder which is almost tasteless and dissolves in water. Ideally, creatine should be taken together with some carbohydrate-rich food. This is because the carbohydrate increases the concentration of insulin in the blood stream which, in turn, helps the creatine to be absorbed by the muscle cells. A snack containing between 30g to 40g of carbohydrate is ideal for this purpose. For example, a banana, two thick slices of whole meal bread, or a bowl of muesli.

There are other forms of creatine. For example, creatine phosphate and creatine citrate. However, these are not absorbed any more readily and are also more expensive.How much should I take?As far as the dosage of creatine is concerned, there are a number of different recommendations. There are no Recommended Daily Amounts (RDAs) for creatine as such. However, most manufacturers suggest starting off with a loading dose of about 20g per day for five days. After this initial period, follow up with a "maintenance" dose of around 2g per day on an ongoing basis. There is no benefit in taking a higher dose since muscles have a maximum storage capacity and any excess is simply lost from the body.Is creatine supplementation safe and are there any side effects?Studies so far have not highlighted any problems.7,8 If you are training and taking creatine supplements you will almost certainly gain weight, particularly lean body mass. Creatine supplementation is not illegal and is allowed by the International Olympic Committee.

Key points
  • Creatine monohydrate is the most widely used form of creatine supplement
  • Creatine is made up of three amino acids and is stored as phosphocreatine in muscles
  • Creatine delays muscle fatigue by "buffering" the build up of lactic acid in the muscles
  • It speeds up recovery between bouts of high-intensity physical activity
  • It extends maximal muscle power output
  • It increases total body mass - particularly lean muscle tissue
  • May be especially beneficial to athletes involved in high-intensity activities particularly where interval training and strength training are involved i.e. anaerobic activities.
  • There is a small amount of evidence that it may also help athletes involved in mainly aerobic activities - for example endurance running and cycling - although the evidence is not strong.
There are a variety of recommendations, however the most widely used is a loading dose of 20g per day for five days, followed by a maintenance dose of 2g per day. Doses in excess of this are of no benefit as muscle can only store a certain amount and any excess is removed from the body.
  • Side-effects - there appear to be no proven side-effects
  • Creatine supplementation is allowed in sport by the International Olympic Committee (2002) Why do some athletes use it?Some athletes say that creatine monohydrate helps build muscle mass and improves performance and delays muscle fatigue during short-duration, high-intensity exercise, such as sprinting or weight lifting.
During loading phase, mix one (1) rounded teaspoon (5g) into 8oz of water or non-acidic juice, (4) times daily for (3) days. During maintenance phase, mix one (1) rounded teaspoon (5g) into 8oz of water or non-acidic juice, 2 times daily. (Once 30 min. before workout, once 30 min. after workout) As always, we strongly advise you do your own research and more importantly consult your own medical professional before commencing any use of this or any other dietary supplement .This statement has not been evaluated by the FDA. This is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

Creatine Ethyl Ester Info

What is it and where does it come from?Creatine Ethyl Ester HCL (CEE) is creatine monohydrate with an ester attached. Esters are organic compounds that are formed by esterification - the reaction of carboxylic acid and alcohols. What does it do and what scientific studies give evidence to support this?Regular creatine monohydrate has been shown effective at increasing lean muscle mass muscle strength and athletic performance.

However, regular creatine monohydrate is absorbed poorly by the body - and its effectiveness is dependant upon the cells ability to absorb it. The poor absorption rate of regular creatine monohydrate requires the creatine user to ingest large dosages of creatine to achieve desired effect.

Because creatine draws water to the cell, and because most ingested creatine monohydrate is not absorbed, unabsorbed creatine will sit outside of the target cell with the water, and this will result in the "creatine bloat."

Long-term clinical studies have proven that creatine monohydrate is safe for use by persons free of medical complication, but why would you want to ingest more creatine monohydrate than you have to simply because your creatine is inefficient?

Creatine ethyl ester is creatine monohydrate with an ester attached. The attachment of an ester is significant, because esters are found in the fat tissue of animals. But, why is this important? What role does this have in the absorption of creatine?

All substances that you put into your body will affect its operation. There are three ways that substances can affect a cells operation. They are:
  • Ligand binding to protein receptor sites.
  • Secondary messenger / metabotropic systems
  • Passive permeation of the cell wall via lipids
When a substance enters the body and affects the bodies operation, it is known as a ligand. The soma and dendrites of the cell have protein receptor sites to which ligands can bind. The process of a ligand binding with a receptor site is akin to a lock and key: only keys of a certain shape work with certain locks. When they work and cause the cells stimulation they are called agonists. When they block the cell from functioning they are called antagonists.

When a ligand binds with the receptor site of a target cell, the cell, in the simplest of cases, changes its shape, opens up its ion channels and changes its function. In so-called "secondary messenger" or metabotropic cells, the ligand binds with the receptor site and an internal protein known as a g-protein is released. This released protein then binds to an internal site inside of the cell, and then the cell changes its behavior by opening its ion channels. Cells that operate in this way are known as metabotropic cells because their operation requires metabolic energy.

Passive permeation is a process that describes the diffusion of a substance across a cell membrane through the use of lipids as transport mechanisms. Because no "work" is being done by the cell in this model, this model is called passive permeation.

Creatine monohydrate utilizes lipids to permeate the cell wall and enter the cell. Because of this, the esterification of creatine, and the presence of esters in animal fat tissue, becomes significant.

Creatine monohydrate is semi-lipopholic. This means that it inefficiently uses fat as a transport mechanism. The esterification of substances will increase their lipopholic abilities, and thus esterified creatine will use fat more efficiently to permeate the cell wall and exert its effects upon cellular function than its unesterified creatine monohydrate counterpart.

This means, simply, that not only will dosage requirements be lower, but the absorption of esterified creatine will be increased and the infamous "creatine bloat" will be eliminated! Who needs it and what are some symptoms of deficiency?Creatine Ethyl Ester can benefit persons of all ages, as it displays the same benefits as regular creatine monohydrate. Is Creatine Ethyl Ester real?Much controversy has been generated over creatine ethyl ester. Companies and individuals with a financial interest in promoting creatine monohydrate products have attempted to discredit creatine ethyl ester. Some companies have even gone so far as to commission laboratory reports that show that creatine ethyl ester is not real.

COA's - certificates of analysis - proving that creatine ethyl ester is real. These are included so that you, the consumer, can make up your own mind - so that you can base your choices upon the power of information.

The esterification of creatine is chemically possible and not hard to conceive. Those who claim that CEE is fake are denying obvious science and are cheating the consumer. How much should be taken? Are there any side effects?2 – 5 gms 20 minutes before exercise.

No side effects have been reported in scientific literature.


Other names N-[4(2-Amino-4-hydroxy pteridin-6-ylmethylamino) benzoyl]-L(+)-glutamic acid; pteroyl-L-glutamic acid; Vitamin B9; Vitamin M; Folacin.

Folate is necessary for the production and maintenance of new cells. This is especially important during periods of rapid cell division and growth such as infancy and pregnancy.

Folate is needed to synthesize DNA bases (most notably thymine, but also purine bases) needed for DNA replication. Thus folate deficiency hinders DNA synthesis and cell division, affecting most notably bone marrow and cancer, both of which participate in rapid cell division. RNA transcription, and subsequent protein synthesis, are less effected by folate deficiency as the mRNA can be recycled and used again (as opposed to DNA synthesis where a new genomic copy must be created). Since folate deficiency limits cell division, erythropoiesis, production of red blood cells (RBCs) is hindered and leads to megaloblastic anemia which is characterized by large immature RBCs. This pathology results from persistently thwarted attempts at normal DNA replication, DNA repair, and cell division and produces abnormally large cells (megaloblasts) with abundant cytoplasm capable of RNA and protein synthesis but with clumping and fragmentation of nuclear chromatin. Some of these large cells, although immature, are released early from the marrow in an attempt to compensate for the anemia caused by lack of RBCs. [2] Both adults and children need folate to make normal RBCs and prevent anemia Deficiency of folate in pregnant women has been implicated in neural tube defects and so many cereals sold in developed countries are enriched with folate to avoid such complications.

In the form of a series of tetrahydrofolate (THF) compounds, folate derivatives are substrates in a number of single-carbon-transfer reactions, and also are involved in the synthesis of dTMP (2'-deoxythymidine-5'-phosphate) from dUMP (2'-deoxyuridine-5'-phosphate). It is a substrate for an important reaction that involves vitamin B12 and it is necessary for the synthesis of DNA, required for all dividing cells.

The pathway leading to the formation of tetrahydrofolate (FH4) begins when folate (F) is reduced to dihydrofolate (DHF) (FH2), which is then reduced to THF. Dihydrofolate reductase catalyses the last step. Vitamin B3 in the form of NADPH is a necessary cofactor for both steps of the synthesis.Methylene-THF.

In other words: F → DHF2 → THF → CH2-THF Formyl-THF <--> Methynl-THF <.--> Methylene-THF --> Methyl-THFOverview of drugs that interfere with folate reactions A number of drugs interfere with the biosynthesis of folic acid and THF. Among them are the dihydrofolate reductase inhibitors such as trimethoprim, pyrimethamine and methotrexate; the sulfonamides (competitive inhibitors of para-aminobenzoic acid in the reactions of dihydropteroate synthetase). (CH2FH4) is formed from THF by the addition of methylene groups from one of three carbon donors: formaldehyde, serine, or glycine. Methyl tetrahydrofolate (CH3-THF) can be made from methylene-THF by reduction of the methylene group with NADPH. If is important to note that Vitamin B12 is the only acceptor of methyl-THF. There is also only one acceptor for methyl-B12 which is homocysteine in a reaction catalyzed by homocysteine methyltransferase. This is important because a defect in homocysteine methyltransferase or a defeciency of B12 can lead to a methyl-trap of THF and a subsequent deficiency. Thus, a deficiency in B12 can generate a large pool of methyl-THF that is unable to undergo reactions and will mimic folate deficiency. Another form of THF, formyl-THF or folinic acid) results from oxidation of methylene-THF or is formed from formate donating formyl group to THF. Finally, histidine can donate a single carbon to THF to form methenyl-THF.· · · 1998 RDAs for Folate

Men Women
(19+) (19+) Pregnancy Breast feeding
400 µg 400 µg 600 µg 500 µg
1 µg of food folate = 0.6 µg

folic acid from supplements and fortified foodsThe National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III 1988-91) and the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (1994-96 CSFII) indicated that most adults did not consume adequate folate. However, the folic acid fortification program in the United States has increased folic acid content of commonly eaten foods such as cereals and grains, and as a result diets of most adults now provide recommended amounts of folate equivalents. Folic Acid / Folate deficiency.

Human reproductionFolic acid is very important for all women who may become pregnant. Adequate folate intake during the periconceptional period, the time just before and just after a woman becomes pregnant, helps protect against a number of congenital malformations including neural tube defects Neural tube defects result in malformations of the spine (spina bifida), skull, and brain (anencephaly). The risk of neural tube defects is significantly reduced when supplemental folic acid is consumed in addition to a healthy diet prior to and during the first month following conception. Women who could become pregnant are advised to eat foods fortified with folic acid or take supplements in addition to eating folate-rich foods to reduce the risk of some serious birth defects. The most notable birth defects that occur from folate deficiency are neural tube defects. Taking 400 micrograms of synthetic folic acid daily from fortified foods and/or supplements has been suggested. The Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for folate equivalents for pregnant women is 600-800 micrograms, twice the normal RDA of 400 micrograms for women who are not pregnant.

Recent research has shown that it is also very important for men who are planning on fathering children, reducing birth defect risksFolic acid supplements and masking of B12 deficiencyThere has been concern about the interaction between vitamin B12 and folic acid Folic acid supplements can correct the anemia associated with vitamin B12 deficiency. Unfortunately, folic acid will not correct changes in the nervous system that result from vitamin B12 deficiency. Permanent nerve damage could theoretically occur if vitamin B12 deficiency is not treated. Therefore, intake of supplemental folic acid should not exceed 1000 micrograms (1000 mcg or 1 mg) per day to prevent folic acid from masking symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency. In fact, to date the evidence that such masking actually occurs is scarce, and there is no evidence that folic acid fortification in Canada or the US has increased the prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency or its consequences.

However one recent study has demonstrated that high folic or folate levels when combined with low B12 levels are associated with significant cognitive impairment among the elderly. If the observed relationship for seniors between folic acid intake, B12 levels, and cognitive impairment is replicated and confirmed, this is likely to re-open the debate on folic acid fortification in food, even though public health policies tend generally to support the developmental needs of infants and children over slight risks to other population groups.

In any case, it is important for older adults to be aware of the relationship between folic acid and vitamin B12 because they are at greater risk of having a vitamin B12 deficiency. If you are 50 years of age or older, ask your physician to check your B12 status before you take a supplement that contains folic acid.Health risk of too much folic acidThe risk of toxicity from folic acid is low.[16] The Institute of Medicine has established a tolerable upper intake level (UL) for folate of 1 mg for adult men and women, and a UL of 800 µg for pregnant and lactating (breast-feeding) women less than 18 years of age. Supplemental folic acid should not exceed the UL to prevent folic acid from masking symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency.

Research suggests high levels of folic acid can interfere with some antimalarial treatments

A 10000-patient study at Tufts University in 2007 concluded that excess folic acid worsens the effects of B12 deficiency and in fact may affect the absorption of B12. Some current issues and controversies about folateDietary fortification of folic acidSince the discovery of the link between insufficient folic acid and neural tube defects (NTDs), governments and health organizations worldwide have made recommendations concerning folic acid supplementation for women intending to become pregnant. For example, the United States Public Health Service (see External links) recommends an extra 0.4 mg/day, which can be taken as a pill. However, many researchers believe that supplementation in this way can never work effectively enough since about half of all pregnancies in the U.S. are unplanned and not all women will comply with the recommendation.

This has led to the introduction in many countries of fortification, where folic acid is added to flour with the intention of everyone benefiting from the associated rise in blood folate levels. This is controversial, with issues having been raised concerning individual liberty, and the masking effect of folate fortification on pernicious anaemia (vitamin B12 deficiency). However, almost all American countries now fortify their flour, along with a number of Middle Eastern countries and Indonesia. Mongolia and a number of ex-Soviet republics are amongst those having widespread voluntary fortification; about five more countries (including Morocco, the first African country) have agreed but not yet implemented fortification. In the UK the Food Standards Agency has recommended fortification. To date, no EU country has yet mandated fortification.[23] Australia is considering fortification, but a period for comments ending 2006-07-31 attracted strong opposition from industry as well as academia.

Recent debate has emerged in the United Kingdom and Australia regarding the inclusion of folic acid in products such as bread and flour.

In the USA many grain products are fortified with folic acid.

In 1996, the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) published regulations requiring the addition of folic acid to enriched breads, cereals, flours, corn meals, pastas, rice, and other grain products.[27][28] This ruling took effect 1998-01-01, and was specifically targeted to reduce the risk of neural tube birth defects in newborns There are concerns that the amount of folate added is insufficient[2]. In October 2006, the Australian press claimed that U.S. regulations requiring fortification of grain products were being interpreted as disallowing fortification in non-grain products, specifically Vegemite (an Australian yeast extract containing folate). The FDA later said the report was inaccurate, and no ban or other action was being taken against Vegemite.

Since the folic acid fortification program took effect, fortified foods have become a major source of folic acid in the American diet. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta, Georgia used data from 23 birth defect registries that cover about half of United States births and extrapolated their findings to the rest of the country. This data indicates that since the addition of folic acid in grain-based foods as mandated by the Food and Drug Administration, the rate of neural tube defects dropped by 25% in the United States. Although folic acid does reduce the risk of birth defects, it is only one part of the picture and should not be considered a cure. Even women taking daily folic acid supplements have been known to have children with neural tube defects.Heart diseaseAdequate concentrations of folate, vitamin B12, or vitamin B6 may decrease the circulating level of homocysteine, an amino acid normally found in blood. There is evidence that an elevated homocysteine level is an independent risk factor for heart disease and stroke.[31] The evidence suggests that high levels of homocysteine may damage coronary arteries or make it easier for blood clotting cells called platelets to clump together and form a clot. However, there is currently no evidence available to suggest that lowering homocysteine with vitamins will reduce risk of heart disease. Clinical intervention trials are needed to determine whether supplementation with folic acid, vitamin B12 or vitamin B6 can lower the risk of developing coronary heart disease. The NORVIT trial suggests that folic acid supplementation may do more harm than good.

As of 2006, studies have shown that giving folic acid to reduce levels of homocysteine does not result in clinical benefit. One of these studies suggests that folic acid in combination with B12 may even increase some cardiovascular risks.

However a 2005 study found that 5 mg. of folate daily over a three-week period reduced pulse pressure by 4.7 mmHg. compared with a placebo, and concluded that[Folic acid is a safe and effective supplement that targets large artery stiffness and may prevent isolated systolic hypertension.

Also, as a result of new research, "heart experts" at Johns Hopkins Medical Center reported in March 2008 in favour of therapeutic folate, although they cautioned that it was premature for those at risk of heart attack to self-medicate.StrokeFolic acid appears to reduce the risk of stroke. The reviews indicate only that in some individuals the risk of stroke appears to be reduced, but a definite recommendation regarding supplementation beyond the current recommended daily allowance has not been established for stroke prevention. Observed stroke reduction is consistent with the reduction in pulse pressure produced by folate supplementation of 5 mg per day, since hypertension is a key risk factor for stroke.CancerThe association between folate and cancer appears to be complex It has been suggested that folate may help prevent cancer, as it is involved in the synthesis, repair, and functioning of DNA, and a deficiency of folate may result in damage to DNA that may lead to cancer. Some investigations have proposed that good levels of folic acid may be related to lower risk of esophagus, stomach and ovarian cancer, but benefices of folic acid against cancer may depend on when it is taken and on individual conditions. In addition folic acid may not be helpful, and could even be damaging, in people who already are suffering from cancer or from a precancerous condition. Conversely, it has been suggested that excess folate may promote tumor initiation. Diets high in folate are associated with decreased risk of colorectal cancer; some studies show an association which is stronger for folate from foods alone than for folate from foods and supplements, while other studies find that folate from supplements is more effective due to greater bioavailability and a 2007 randomized clinical trial found that folate supplements did not reduce the risk of colorectal adenomas.[45] A 2006 prospective study of 81,922 Swedish adults found that diets high in folate from foods, but not from supplements, were associated with a reduced risk of pancreatic cancer Most epidemiologic studies suggest that diets high in folate are associated with decreased risk of breast cancer, but results are not uniformly consistent: one large cancer screening trial reported a potential harmful effect of high folate intake on breast cancer risk, suggesting that routine folate supplementation should not be recommended as a breast cancer preventive but a 2007 Swedish prospective study found that a high folate intake was associated with a lower incidence of postmenopausal breast cancer. It is very difficult to affirm how each nutrient or nutrient combination affects a person’s risk of cancer. People whose diets are rich in vegetables and low in animal fat and meat have lower risks for some of the most frequent types of cancer. Taking a variety of healthful foods, with most of them coming from plant sources, is a better solution than taking vitaminic supplements. So the authorities are not really sure if this will work for cancer or not, (or the age at which it is safe to start taking folate supplements) but hopefully this will all become clear in the light of research now underway.AntifolatesFolate is important for cells and tissues that rapidly divide.[1] Cancer cells divide rapidly, and drugs that interfere with folate metabolism are used to treat cancer. The antifolate methotrexate is a drug often used to treat cancer because it inhibits the production of the active form of THF from the inactive dihydrofolate (DHF). Unfortunately, methotrexate can be toxic, producing side effects such as inflammation in the digestive tract that make it difficult to eat normally.Folinic acidDepressionSome evidence links low levels of folate with depression. There is some limited evidence from randomised controlled trials that using folic acid in addition to antidepressant medication may have benefits Researchers at the University of York and Hull York Medical School have confirmed a link between depression and low levels of folate in a research study involving 15,315 However, the evidence is probably too limited at present for this to be a routine treatment recommendation.Memory and mental agilityIn a 3-year trial on 818 people over the age of 50, short-term memory, mental agility and verbal fluency were all found to be better among people who took 800 micrograms of folic acid daily—twice the current RDA—than those who took placebo.

The study was reported in The Lancet on 19 January 2007FertilityFolate is necessary for fertility in both men and women. In men, it contributes to spermatogenesis. In women, on the other hand, it contributes to oocyte maturation, implantation, placentation, in addition to the general effects of folic acid and pregnancy. Therefore, it is necessary to receive sufficient amounts through the diet, in order to avoid subfertility. Induction of acute renal failureFolic acid is used in extremely high doses to induce Acute renal failure in murine models. It should be noted that the dose reported below represents about 120 years of the recommended daily intake [0.4 mg for adults] in one application, an experiment irrelevant to human nutrition. The exact method through which folic acid induces kidney injury in such massive dose is unknown, however it is characterized by the appearance of folic acid crystals in renal tubules and acute tubular necrosis. This method of renal injury is also linked to increased expression of Tumor necrosis factor-alpha. The dose of folic acid used to induce renal injury is usually around 250mg of folic acid per kg of body weight. The folic acid is usually administered in a vehicle of 0.3mmol/L of sodium bicarbonate. , under the drug name leucovorin, is a form of folate (formyl-THF) that can help "rescue" or reverse the toxic effects of methotrexate Folinic acid is not the same as folic acid. Folic acid supplements have little established role in cancer chemotherapy.[53][54] There have been cases of severe adverse effects of accidental substitution of folic acid for folinic acid in patients receiving methotrexate cancer chemotherapy. It is important for anyone receiving methotrexate to follow medical advice on the use of folic or folinic acid supplements.

The supplement of folinic acid in patients undergoing methotrexate treatment is to give non rapidly dividing cells enough folate to maintain normal cell functions. The amount of folate given will be depleted by rapidly dividing cells (cancer) very fast and so will not negate the effects of methotrexate. Low dose methotrexate is used to treat a wide variety of non-cancerous diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, scleroderma, psoriasis, asthma, sarcoidoisis, primary biliary cirrhosis, and inflammatory bowel disease Low doses of methotrexate can deplete folate stores and cause side effects that are similar to folate deficiency. Both high folate diets and supplemental folic acid may help reduce the toxic side effects of low dose methotrexate without decreasing its effectiveness.[56][57] Anyone taking low dose methotrexate for the health problems listed above should consult with a physician about the need for a folic acid supplement.

While the role in folate as a cancer treatment is well established its long term effectiveness is diminished by cellular response. In response to decreased THF the cell begins to transcribe more DHF reductase, the enzyme that reduces DHF to THF. Because methotrexate is a competitive inhibitor of DHF reductase increased concentrations of DHF reductase can overcome the drugs inhibition.Recommended Daily Allowence (RDA) Biochemistry of DNA base and amino acid production DNA and cell division Biological roles of Folic Acid / folateFolic acid.s

GABA amino acid

GABA stands for gamma-aminobutyric acid, is the product of a biochemical decarboxylation reaction of glutamic acid by the vitamin pyridoxal, as well as from decarboxylase (GAD).GABA is required forGABA is required as an inhibitory neurotransmitter to block the transmission of an impulse from one cell to another in the central nervous system, which prevents over-firing of the nerve cells.

It is also used for brain metabolism and to treat both epilepsy and hypertension where it is thought to induce tranquility in individuals who have a high activity of manic behavior and acute agitation.

In combination with inositol and nicotinamide it helps with blocking anxiety and stress related impulses from reaching the motor centers of the brain.

Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid can be used to calm a person, much like tranquilizers, but without the possibility of addiction.Deficiency of GABAIt has been suggested that a shortage of GABA may cause panic attacks, since an intake of tranquilizers can increase the level of GABA in the body. GABA may also be effective in treating PMS in women.DosageThe dosage listed is .5gm , but be aware that this dosage is the minimum that you require per day, to ward off serious deficiency of this particular nutrient. In the therapeutic use of this nutrient, the dosage is usually increased considerably, but the toxicity level must be kept in mind.

Dosage has not been established, but it is interesting to note that some research suggests that the supplement Kava (kava is a herbal root used as a supplement) causes more GABA receptors to form in the brain. Toxicity and symptoms of high intakeToxic levels have not been established, but very high intake of GABA may cause anxiety, tingling of extremities, shortness of breath as well as a numb feeling around the mouth.Other interesting pointsIt is sometimes used as sexual a stimulant because of its relaxing capabilities, as well as with prostate problems, since it also assists with the release of sex hormones.


L-glutamine is the most prevalent amino acid in the blood. Human cells readily manufacture L-glutamine, and under normal circumstances, dietary intake and production of L-glutamine is sufficient. However, in times of stress or increased energy output, the body's tissues need more L-glutamine than usual, making supplementation important.

Some studies suggest that L-glutamine may boost the immune system. Scientists think that taking L-glutamine orally may enhance the activity of infection-fighting white blood cells and other agents. It may also decrease the permeability of the intestines, thus making it harder for invaders to attack the body.

One of L-glutamine’s most important functions involves the support of cellular energy, growth and repair. L-glutamine levels have been found to be decreased in endurance athletes who train too often and at high intensity. In fact, these athletes tend to have a higher incidence of infectious diseases and allergies, and have been noted to have swollen lymph nodes and experience slower wound healing. Athletes undergoing a strenuous workout schedule may be able to reduce the risk of infections by supplementing with L-glutamine.What Is L-Glutamine?How To Use It.

Due to its anti-catabolic properties and the fact that it accelerates glycogen synthesis after a workout, glutamine is best taken 20-30 minutes after a workout. On days that you don't workout, just take it with your last meal of the day. While there is much debate amongst experts as far as dosage is concerned, I always like to remain on the conservative side. Therefore, I feel that 3-5 grams is a sufficient dosage to start with and as your stomach gets used to it you can increase it to as much as 10-15 grams.

As far as side effects , slight stomach discomfort during the first week of use (straight powder form). Other than that, no other side effects and I have not found any literature that links its use to anything bad.

Recommend that you start with a low dosage (such as only 3 grams a day) in order to assess your tolerance. From there you can build up to 10-15 grams split in 2-3 servings per day (1 in the morning, 1 after the workout and another one before bed). I would reserve the highest dosage schedule for periods of extremely hard training such as pre-contest training.

By looking at the effects that this supplement can provide you with, along with the fact that these days it can be purchased for a very cheap price, we wonder why more athletes don't use it. This is especially important during dieting, as a way to protect the muscle from being cannibalized by the effects of cortisol.As always, we strongly advise you do your own research and more importantly consult your own medical professional before commencing any use of this or any other dietary supplement .This statement has not been evaluated by the FDA. This is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease Side Effects DIRECTIONS: As a dietary supplement, mix one (1) rounded teaspoon (5g) into 8oz of water or your favorite beverage once thirty (30) minutes before training and once thirty (30) minutes after training. If you are not training/working out just take one (1) rounded teaspoon (5g) a day.

L-Glutamine the most abundant amino acid in muscle cells. It is released from the muscle during times of stress (such as hard weight training workouts) and dieting. This amino acid not only has been shown to be a great anti-catabolic agent (protects the muscle from the catabolic activities of the hormone cortisol), to be a contributor to muscle cell volume, and to have immune system enhancing properties but also to help in the following ways:
  • Regulation of protein synthesis (this is one of the ways in which steroids exert their muscle building effects).
  • Accelerating glycogen synthesis after a workout.
  • Sparing the use of the glycogen stored in the muscle cell (recall that the glycogen stored in the muscle cell is what gives the cell the healthy volume and firmness that you seek).
  • Faster recuperation from weight training workouts.

What is HMB?

HMB or Beta-Hydroxy Beta-methylbutyrate is a byproduct of the normal breakdown of the amino acid Leucine. It is therefore a metabolite of the essential amino acid - Leucine. HMB is produced in our body from the proteins in our diet and is also consumed in small amounts from the foods we eat. Foods like catfish and alfalfa contain small amounts of HMB.What benefits do HMB supplements have?HMB supplements help to gain muscle by minimizing the amount of muscle that is broken down after you train. You may get the following benefits:
  • Increased gains of lean muscle
  • Prevents muscle catabolism
  • Speeds up muscle repair and recovery times
  • Decreases body fat
  • Decreases blood cholesterol levels
  • Increase VO2 max and endurance How HMB supplements work:HMB supplements help to slow down a process call proteolysis, which is the natural process of breaking down muscle tissue that occurs after intense physical activity (weight training in this case).
Taking HMB gives the body a head start of muscle recovery by minimizing the amount of muscle breakdown and protein degradation after exercise. This means that you body stays in an anabolic state for longer allowing for more muscle growth.

HMB supplements were first used by Iowa State University in cattle. Their tests found that by giving cattle HMB supplements they would produce more muscle tissue and less body fat. Studies were then carried out on humans with the same results. Iowa State University tested 40 men who trained for 4 weeks and found that the men who were given 3 grams of HMB per day built more muscle and lost more body fat the men who trained without HMB.Does HMB have any side effects?Published studies have been undertaken to measure the side effects of taking HMB supplements in men, women, children and the elderly. In 9 separate studies only positive effects were found on muscle, body fat, blood pressure and cholesterol.Can HMB be taken with other supplements?HMB supplements are commonly taken with whey protein, glutamine, creatine and carbs. In fact it's possible to buy blends which contain HMB with other products like creatine and whey protein. Taking HMB with other supplements will actually have a positive effect. For example creatine will give you the power to work your muscles harder and HMB will minimize muscle breakdown and recovery times.

How much HMB you should take:Like many other muscle building supplements the recommended about of HMB you should be taking depends on your bodyweight. As a general guide, for people weighing up to 130lbs (60kg) 2 grams per day should be enough. For people weighing over 130lbs (60kg) a dosage of 4 grams per day is recommended. You should only take 1 gram at a time, so if you're over 130lbs take 1 gram 4 times per day.How long does it take HMB to work?Measurable increases in strength and muscle mass may be seen in 2-4 weeks.What does it do and what scientific studies give evidence to support this?Many of the world's champions and athletes are using HMB and receiving dramatic results. Specifically, HMB plays a role in the synthesis of muscle tissue. It has the ability to burn fat and build muscle consistently in response to exercise. Backed heavily by science, HMB works for NFL greats like Shannon Sharpe and Olympic medallists throughout the globe. New scientific studies are being conducted on this supplement all the time. Recently, a study showed in a control group supplementing with HMB, that after taking 3 grams of HMB per day for three weeks, those who took HMB versus the random placebo takers gained three times more muscle on their bench press! Animal studies also suggest that it may increase lean muscle mass. A study conducted on humans showed that those who supplemented with HMB experienced enhanced strength, greater endurance, and increased fat loss. It's ability to boost endurance alone is an incredible result. A seven week long study showed a much greater gain in muscle when a group of 28 participated in a regular weight-training program. How does HMB do all this? It appears to increase the rate of protein being used to increase muscle growth, while decreasing the atrophy or tear down of muscle that occurs. Are there any side effects or interactions?No safety issues have been reported in the limited number of studies currently available. At the time of writing, there were no well-known drug interactions with HMB.


Leucine is one of three branched-chain amino acids (the others are valine and isoleucine) that enhance energy, increase endurance, and aid in muscle tissue recovery and repair. L-Leucine is an essential amino acid and works with isoleucine and valine to protect muscle and act as fuel. This group also lowers elevated blood sugar levels and increases growth hormone production. Supplemental valine should always be combined with isoleucine and valine at a respective milligram ratio of 2:1:2.

L-leucine is an essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.

Description: White crystals or crystalline powder , slightly bitter taste.

Synonyms: (2S)-α-2-amino-4-methylvaleric acid , L , leu , leucine, 2-amino-4-methylvaleric acid , (2S)-α-leucine
Molecular formula: C6H13NO2
Molecular Weight: 131.17
CAS NO.: 56-89-3


L-Lysine is an essential amino acid which bodies cannot produce it, and, therefore, we must obtain it from our diet or through supplementation. There are various medications for shingles that include antiviral drugs, steroids, topical agents, and so on. Some people swear by L-lysine natural help for shingles. Lysine is required for collagen synthesis and it may be important to bone health because it appears to help the body absorb and conserve calcium. Lysine is required for collagen synthesis and it may be important to bone health because it appears to help the body absorb and conserve calcium which both reducing the number of outbreaks and alleviating the severity of the symptoms.Benefits of LysineHerpes and Shingles L-lysine can be used to treat mouth and genital lesions caused by herpes simplex virus as well as shingles caused by herpes zoster viruses. Taking lysine supplements can speed recovery time and reduce the chance of recurrent breakouts of the herpes infection. Osteoporosis L-lysine helps improve the absorption of calcium from the digestive tract and prevent loss of calcium in the urine. In so doing, some researchers speculate that L-lysine may help prevent bone loss associated with osteoporosis. In addition, test tube studies suggest that L-lysine in combination with L-arginine (another amino acid) increases the activity of bone-building cells and enhances production of collagen. Dietary Sources Good sources of lysine are foods rich in protein including meat (specifically red meat, pork, and poultry), cheese (particularly parmesan), certain fish (such as cod and sardines), nuts, eggs, soybeans (particularly tofu, isolated soy protein, and defatted soybean flour), spirulina, and fenugreek seed. Lysine is available in tablets, capsules, creams, and liquids, and is usually sold in the l-lysine form.


  • Nervous system support
  • Supports energy production
  • Critical for enzyme function
Magnesium is a mineral that is critical for energy production and metabolism, muscle contraction, nerve impulse transmission and bone mineralization. It is required cofactor for an estimated 300 enzymes. Among the reactions catalyzed by these enzymes are fatty acid synthesis, protein synthesis and glucose metabolism. Magnesium status is also important for regulation of calcium balance through its effects on the parathyroid gland.A Dietary Supplement Suggested UseAs a dietary supplement, take .5 gm with or between meals.


OKG supplements, taken at doses shown to be effective (10-15 grams per day) glutamine and arginine, which increase growth hormone levels and are regulators of protein synthesis. Studies show that OKG generates more glutamine and arginine in the systemic circulation than when these substances are given orally.

OKG is a salt formed by combining two molecules of the amino acid ornithine and one molecule of alpha-ketoglutarate. Because OKG seems to be involved in amino acid synthesis and protein availability, many athletes supplement with OKG as a way to increase muscle mass, hormone levels and strength.

Taking OKG decreases muscle protein catabolism (breakdown) and increases protein synthesis, in addition to promoting wound healing. OKG fulfills these functions by encouraging the secretion of insulin and human growth hormone, and by upregulating glutamine and arginine production. When given to trauma patients, there are significant increases in both IGF-1 and growth hormone levels.


Ornithine is an amino acid that does not occur in proteins but is important in the formation of urea. L-Ornithine is a nonprotein amino acid. It is used in the body in the biosynthesis of L-arginine, L-proline and polyamines.

L-Ornithine is a basic amino acid, positively charged at physiological pH. It is also known as alpha,delta-diaminovaleric acid and 2,5-diaminopentanoic acid. Its molecular formula is C5H12N2O2, and its molecular weight is 132.16 daltons.

L-Ornithine is used as a nutritional supplement principally for its putative anabolic activity. There is little evidence to support this use. However, a derivative of L-ornithine called ornithine alpha-ketoglutarate or OKG may, under certain conditions, have immunomodulatory and anticatabolic and/or anabolic actions.

Ornithine is important because it induces the release of growth hormone in the body, which in turn helps with fat metabolism. Ornithine is required for a properly functioning immune system and liver. It assists in ammonia detoxification and liver Rejuvenation. Ornithine helps healing and repairing skin and tissue and is found in both these body parts.. Ornithine is helpful for people recouping after surgery and athletes may benefit from this nutrient.

L-Ornithine can be changed into L-Arginine in the body and it functions similarly in growth hormone release.

What is Trans Resveratrol?

Resveratrol is a phenolic compound that has been found to have strong antioxidant activity. Plants create resveratrol to protect themselves against the effects of poor growing conditions and severe weather. Resveratrol has been shown to reduce the oxidation of LDL cholesterol, total cholesterol and the risk of cardiovascular disease. Other recent studies on animals have shown resveratrol to increase athletic endurance and dramatically increase life-span.

Why Trans Resveratrol Is Better:
In nature, resveratrol exists in two different isomers, trans- and cis-; these prefixes refer to the shape of the molecule. It is believed that trans-resveratrol is the biologically active of the two isomers, which is why we only label for this active "trans-resveratrol" molecule.

Name: S-Adenosyl-L-methionine(SAMe)Synonyms:

SAM-e is an amino acid derivative that has been clinically proven to benefit brain and joint function. SAMe is a molecule produced constantly by all living cells. It is a good nutrition for the liver,can prevent alcohol, drugs and the liver-cell injury; has remarkable preventive effects on chronic active hepatitis, and other factors caused liver injury,heart disease, cancer and so on.. SAMe has been found to be as effective as pharmaceutical treatments for arthritis and major depression as well. Found in all living cells, SAM-e is also called "activated" methionine (an essential amino acid) since it is formed by the combining of ATP with methionine. SAM-e has undergone dozens of trials involving thousands of patients.

Researchers studying the beneficial effects of SAM-e have indentified the following benefits :

(3S)-5'-[(3-Amino-3-carboxylatopropyl)methylsulphonio]-5'-deoxyadenosine; SAMJoint Strenght SAM-e supports the production of healthy connective tissue through transulfuration. In this process, critical components of connective tissue, including glucosamine and the chondroitin sulfates, are sulfated by SAM-e.

Brain Metabolism:
SAM-e methylation reactions are involved in the synthesis of neurotransmitters such as L-dopa, dopamine and related hormones, epinephrine and phosphatidylcholine (a component of Lecithin).

Methylation of DNA appears to be important in the suppression of errors in DNA replication. Demethylation of DNA is considered a contributor to the aging process. Proper methylation through substances such as SAM-e positively influence longevity.

SAM-e metabolism supports the synthesis of glutathione (GSH) and glutathione-dependent enzymes (glutathione peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase), which are substances important for liver function.Dosage Take 400mg per day on an empty stomach, or as directed by your qualified health consultant.

How to Use Tretinoin (Retin-A)Treatment Retin-A TretinoinSide Effects of Retin-A

The effect of increased skin cell turnover can be irritation and flaking. For this reason, many people stop using Retin-A after a couple of days to weeks, then think that it didn't work. It is important to realize that Retin-A is very effective for whiteheads and blackheads, but it may take 6-9 weeks to see a noticeable difference. It takes at least 6 months to see a noticeable difference in wrinkles. The best benefit is seen if Retin-A is used for at least a year.
  • Apply Retin-A in a thin layer at night. A small amount goes a long way.
  • In the morning wash your face with a mild facial scrub or rough wash cloth. This will help reduce the noticeable flaking.
  • After washing, apply a good water-based moisturizer. Yes, guys, this applies to you too. The moisturizer will make the drying effect of the medicine more tolerable.
  • If flaking occurs during the day use a wash cloth to remove it and apply more moisturizer, or just apply moisturizer.
  • Try using a moisturizer that also contains a sunscreen. If not, apply sunscreen anytime you are in the sun even for a short amount of time. Tretinoin makes you more susceptible to sunburn.
  • When you first start using Retin-A, apply it every other night or every 3rd night. The flaking and irritation side effects are usually the worst in the first 2 weeks of application. As your skin adjusts to the medicine, you can apply it more frequently.
  • If you notice an increase in the irritation or flaking, it's ok to take a break for a couple of days. Just don't stop completely without consulting your health care provider! (Retin-A, Avita, Renova) is a derivative of Vitamin A and is the treatment of choice for comedonal acne, or whiteheads and blackheads. It works by increasing skin cell turnover promoting the extrusion of the plugged material in the follicle. It also prevents the formation of new comedones. Tretinoin is also the only topical medication that has been proven to improve wrinkles.


L-tyrosine is a protein amino acid. It is classified as a conditionally essential amino acid.

Under most circumstances, the body can synthesize sufficient L-tyrosine, principally from L-phenylalanine, to meet its physiological demands. However, there are conditions where the body requires a dietary source of the amino acid for its physiological demands. For example, L-tyrosine is an essential amino acid for those with phenylketonuria. L-tyrosine is found in proteins of all life forms. Dietary sources of L-tyrosine are principally derived from animal and vegetable proteins. Vegetables and juices contain small amounts of the free amino acid. The free amino acid is also found in fermented foods such as yogurt .

In addition to being involved in protein synthesis, L-tyrosine is a precursor for the synthesis of the catecholamines epinephrine, norepinephrine and dopamine, the thyroid hormones thyroxine and triiodothyronine, and the pigment melanin.

L-tyrosine is also known as beta- (para-hydroxyphenyl) alanine, alpha-amino-para-hydroxyhydrocinnamic acid and (S)- alpha-amino-4-hydroxybenzenepropanoic acid. It is abbreviated as either Tyr of by its one-letter abbreviation Y. The molecular formula of L-tyrosine is C9H10NO3, and its molecular weight is 181.19 daltons. L-tyrosine is an aromatic amino acid ACTIONSL-tyrosine has putative antidepressant activity.

The mechanism of L-tyrosine's putative antidepressant activity may be accounted for by the precursor role of L-tyrosine in the synthesis of the neurotransmitters norepinephrine and dopamine. Elevated brain norepinephrine and dopamine levels are thought to be associated with antidepressant effects.

Following ingestion, L-tyrosine is absorbed from the small intestine by a sodium-dependent active transport process. L-tyrosine is transported from the small intestine to the liver via the portal circulation. In the liver, L-tyrosine is involved in a number of biochemical reactions, including protein synthesis and oxidative catabolic reactions. L-tyrosine that is not metabolized in the liver is distributed via the systemic circulation to the various tissues of the body.

Results are mixed, but largely negative, with respect to claims that tyrosine is an effective antidepressant. Claims that it can alleviate some of the mental and physical symptoms of environmental stress are based on preliminary evidence. Further claims that tyrosine is useful in narcolepsy and attention deficit disorder have been refuted by some studies. Another study found that tyrosine supplementation did not improve neuropsychological performance in subjects with phenylketonuria. Claims that tyrosine is helpful in alleviating symptoms of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and drug withdrawal are largely anecdotal and unconfirmed. There is no evidence tyrosine has any effect on dementia, Alzheimer's disease or Parkinson's disease.

Two small, early studies suggested that tyrosine might have useful antidepressant effects. A subsequent follow-up with more subjects and conducted in a randomized, double-blind fashion failed to find any significant antidepressant activity, compared with placebo, in subjects with major depression. The dose used was 100 mg/kg/day of tyrosine for four weeks.

One study has concluded that tyrosine can protect against some forms of environmental stress. Subjects were given a 100 mg/kg dose of tyrosine and then exposed for 4.5 hours to cold and hypoxia in this double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study. Tyrosine was reported to significantly decrease adverse symptoms, including mood and performance impairment. Follow-up is needed.

In another double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, tyrosine had no significant effect on subjects with narcolepsy and associated cataplexy. Dose used was 9 grams daily for four weeks. Similarly, tyrosine failed to produce lasting, significant improvement in subjects with attention deficit disorder. In this small, open study, tyrosine seemed to improve this condition after two weeks of supplementation, but this improvement was not sustained.

Recently, tyrosine was tested to see if it could improve the neuropsychological test performances of individuals with phenylketonuria. This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study. Maximum dosage used was 100 to 150 mg/kg/day. The supplementation increased plasma tyrosine concentrations. Higher tyrosine levels correlated at baseline with improved performance on the neuropsychological tests, yet higher concentrations achieved through supplementation in this trial did not enhance test scores.

L-tyrosine is contraindicated in those with the inborn errors of metabolism alkaptonuria and tyrosinemia type I and type II. It is also contraindicated in those taking non-selective monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. L-tyrosine is contraindicated in those hypersensitive to any component of an L-tyrosine-containing supplement.

Pregnant women and nursing mothers should avoid supplementation with L-tyrosine.

Those with hypertension should exercise caution in the use of L-tyrosine.

Those with melanoma should avoid L-tyrosine supplements.

Tyrosine is generally well tolerated. There are some reports of those taking supplemental L-tyrosine experiencing insomnia and nervousness.

DRUGSNon-selective MAO inhibitors.

Those who use supplemental L-tyrosine typically take 500 to 1500 mg daily.As always, we strongly advise you do your own research and more importantly consult your own medical professional before commencing any use of this or any other dietary supplement .This statement has not been evaluated by the FDA. This is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease including phenelzine sulfate, tranylcypromine sulfate and pargyline HC1 — Concomitant use of L-tyrosine and non-selective MAO inhibitors may cause hypertension..

Yohimbe Bark Extract (Yohimbine)YohimbineFunctions

AphrodisiacThe NIH states that yohimbine hydrochloride is the standardized form of yohimbine that is available as a prescription medicine in the United States, and has been shown in human studies to be effective in the treatment of male impotence.

Yohimbine Hydrochloride, USP—a standardized form of yohimbine—is a prescription medicine that has been used to treat erectile dysfunction. Controlled studies suggest that it is not always an effective treatment for impotence, and evidence of increased sex drive (libido) is anecdotal only.

It cannot be excluded that orally administered yohimbine can have a beneficial effect in some patients with ED. The conflicting results available may be attributed to differences in drug design, patient selection, and definitions of positive response. However, generally, available results of treatment are not impressive.

– Review of literature on Yohimbine studies 2000., (Morales, 2000b)Yohimbine has been shown to be effective in the reversal of sexual satiety and exhaustion in male rats. Yohimbine has also been shown to increase the volume of ejaculated semen in dogs, with the effect lasting at least five hours after administrationYohimbine has been shown to be effective in the treatment of orgasmic dysfunction in men. Other usesYohimbine hydrochloride has also been used for the treatment of sexual side effects caused by some antidepressants (SSRIs), female hyposexual disorder, as a blood pressure boosting agent in autonomic failure, xerostomia, and as a probe for noradrenergic activity.

Yohimbine has been used to facilitate recall of traumatic memories in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Use of yohimbine outside therapeutic settings may not be appropriate for persons suffering from PTSD. According to one study, oral yohimbine supplementation may actuate significant fat loss in athletes..

In veterinary medicine, yohimbine is used to reverse anesthesia from the drug xylazine in small and large animals.PharmacologyYohimbine has high affinity for the α2A-adrenergic, α2B-adrenergic, and α2C-adrenergic receptors, moderate affinity for the 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT1D, 5-HT2B, and D2 receptors, and weak affinity for the D3 receptor. Yohimbine also has unknown but significant affinity for the 5-HT2A receptor. Yohimbine behaves as an antagonist at all receptors except for the 5-HT1A, 5-HT1D, and 5-HT2A receptors, where it acts as a weak partial agonist. ProductionYohimbine is the principal alkaloid of the bark of the West African evergreen Pausinystalia yohimbePierre (formerly Corynanthe yohimbe), family rubiaceae (Madder family). There are 31 other yohimbane alkaloids found in Yohimbe. In Africa, yohimbe has traditionally been used as an aphrodisiac. However, it is very important to note that while the terms yohimbine, yohimbine hydrochloride, and yohimbe bark extract are related, they are not interchangeable.

The main active chemical present in yohimbe bark is yohimbine HCl (indole alkaloid), found in the bark of the Pausinystalia yohimbe tree.

However, the levels of yohimbine that are present in yohimbe bark extract are variable and often very low. Therefore, although yohimbe bark has been used traditionally to reduce male erectile dysfunction, there is not enough scientific evidence to form a definitive conclusion in this area.Adverse effectsYohimbine has significant side effects, such as anxiety reactions. According to the Mayo Clinic, yohimbine can be dangerous if used in excessive amounts.

Higher doses of oral yohimbine may create numerous side effects, such as rapid heart rate, high blood pressure, overstimulation, insomnia and/or sleeplessness. Some effects in rare cases were panic attacks, hallucinations, headaches, dizziness, and skin flushing.

More serious adverse effects may include seizures and renal failure. Yohimbine should not be consumed by anyone with liver, kidney, heart disease, or a psychological disorder.

The range between an effective dose and a dangerous dose is very narrow; too large of a dosage can be harmful and toxic. This may also lead to precipitation of panic disorder type reactions. is a tryptamine alkaloid and is the active chemical constituent of the medicinal herb Pausinystalia yohimbe (formerly Corynanthe yohimbe), also known as yohimbe or yohimbe bark. Yohimbine is a stimulant drug and purportedly has aphrodisiac qualities.

Zinc Monomethionine

Chelated Zinc and Methionine More than 70% of women do not obtain the minimum daily requirement of zinc from their diets. Zinc is an enzyme co-factor that assists the body in absorbing enzymes, such as Vitalzym. Additionally, it plays an important role in hormone production and balance, and is crucial to the manufacture and repair of DNA. Zinc's role in strengthening a women's immune system is rapidly being recognized as critical.

Zinc and Women’s Hormonal BalanceZinc helps prevent hormonal imbalance and fibrosis conditions because it plays an important role in hormone production and balance. Zinc helps to increase progesterone levels and lower estrogen. The American Zinc Association states that as a woman ages, she may undergo dietary or hormonal changes which could affect her zinc status. For example, excess estrogen can lower serum zinc levels and women who are estrogen dominant or using estrogen replacement therapy should check to be sure their zinc intake is adequate.

According to the America Zinc Association, zinc may help in the treatment of pre-menstrual syndrome (PMS), which affects 50 percent of all menstruating women. Recent studies cannot say for sure, but there is growing evidence that a deficiency of progesterone underlies PMS, and trace amounts of zinc regulate the secretion of hormones, including progesterone.

Early research at Baylor College of Medicine in Houston found significantly lower levels of zinc among women with PMS during the last 13 days of the menstrual cycle. This reduction could lead to a decrease in secretions of progesterone and endorphins, the natural painkillers our bodies produce. The research is preliminary and if zinc deficiency does play a role, it might only affect a subgroup; nevertheless, studies continue to confirm zinc's importance to the regulation of hormones. Zinc also governs the contractibility of muscles, including uterine muscle, and plays a role in menstrual regulation.

Zinc and Men’s Hormonal BalanceCommonly used to manage colds, zinc is one of the most important supplements for men’s health. And is most concentrated in the prostate gland.1 A key mineral in male sexual function and a protector nutrient against prostate cancer.2,3. For the aging male population, zinc supplementation can be indicated for several reasons. The mineral zinc, which inhibits the activity of the 5-alpha reductase enzyme that irreversibly converts testosterone to dihydrotestosterone, may be helpful in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia.3 Zinc also has a critical role in male sexual function and is necessary for all aspects of male reproduction, including hormone metabolism and sperm formation and motility.

In men, zinc deficiency syndromes can present in different ways. Low testosterone and low sperm counts may be signs of a zinc deficiency.3 Men with excessive estrogen levels despite normal testosterone levels may also lack the mineral.4 Increased estrogen levels result from elevated amounts of the aromatase enzyme which converts testosterone to estrogen.

Read more about zinc for Men's Health on our Zinc for Men webpage.

Symptoms of Zinc Deficiency:
  • Acne
  • Anorexia
  • Delayed wound healing
  • Depression
  • Difficulty hearing
  • Fatigue
  • Frequent infections
  • Impaired sense of taste or smell
  • Joint pain
  • Light sensitivity
  • Night Blindness
  • Problems with hair, skin, or nails
  • Weak sexual function or sterility
Vital During Pregnancy & BreastfeedingBecause zinc is used to generate cells, it is essential for the developing fetus where cells are rapidly dividing. Adequate zinc contributes to growth, lessens premature births and other complications, and improves neonatal survival.

Zinc is also important to mothers who breastfeed. Studies in The Lancet showed that by the sixth month of lactation even a well-nourished mother may provide less zinc than is necessary for her infant. Zinc causes babies to thrive. Breastfed babies who received zinc supplements grew significantly in length and weight over those given a placebo. Zinc and Aging A Wayne State study found that nearly 30 percent of a large group of healthy, affluent women over 50 were zinc deficient. It's believed that zinc deficiency is common in older women, partly because they eat less, which makes getting enough zinc difficult.

Zinc's role in strengthening a women's immune system is rapidly being recognized as critical. Without enough zinc, the body can't produce thymulin, a substance which helps make mature T-cells, some of the body's strongest defenders against infections and disease. The immune system weakens with age, and zinc deficiency may be partly to blame.

Zinc also plays a role in maintaining vision. In particular, it's needed for night vision and it may also slow the progression of macular degeneration, a disorder of the retina that is the leading cause of severe loss of vision in older women.

Genetic ExpressionGroundbreaking research in zinc is its role in genetic transcription and replication. The discovery of "zinc fingers," which activate hundreds of genes, promises understanding of how growth promoters, like steroids, work and may help treat tumors and viral diseases. Zinc finger proteins bind to DNA by wrapping around small sections of DNA molecules, activating a gene. Research into zinc finger proteins has already explained some genetic defects.

Zinc and VitalzymZinc is an enzyme co-factor that assists the body in absorbing enzymes, such as those found in Vitalzym, to help them work as efficiently as possible in the body.

If you are using Vitalzym for a fibrosis condition that is related to estrogen dominance, or any condition, you may not be utilizing the enzymes as well as possible because you may have low levels of zinc.

Between 15 and 50 mg a day is suggested to optimize enzyme absorption, the immune system, and hormonal balance.

Supplement FactsServing Size:
Zinc monomethionine is a 1:1 chelated complex of the antioxidants zinc and methionine. Human and animal studies have demonstrated that zinc monomethionine is more effective than other zinc supplements tested. Zinc monomethionine has been shown to stimulate new cell growth, enhance immunity, nourish skin structures, support male sexual function, and fight free radical damage.

Other ingredients: Microcrystalline cellulose and hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose (Vcap). Suggested Use: As a dietary supplement, take daily with meals or as directed 25 mg by a health care professional.

Possible Zinc Side EffectsLong-term supplementation at doses above 50 mg/day can induce a copper deficiency and has been shown to cause an increase in cholesterol and lower HDL levels.1 Supplementing copper with the zinc should eliminate this problem.2If your multi-vitamin/mineral formula contains copper and zinc, please factor the amount into your daily intake. For those who live in areas where there are high copper levels in water, there may not be a need to supplement with copper.

People with estrogen dominance may not need to add copper into their daily regimen, due to the fact that copper is generally high when this condition is present. Additionally, high levels of copper can be reduced by taking zinc alone.

Individuals who are not sure if they should take copper while supplementing with zinc may want to have their copper levels tested prior to adding it to their diet.

Doses above 150 mg/day can be problematic and cause diarrhea, dizziness, drowsiness, vomiting, muscle in-coordination, and lethargy .25 mg per day.

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