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L-ARGININE & L-ORNITHINE INFO

The amino acid arginine is a powerful immune enhancer. It plays a role in such diverse body functions as circulation and sexual function. Ornithine has many of the same properties. Teaming these two powerhouses makes a safe, natural and effective supplement for immune system enhancement.

Arginine is synthesized in the liver and kidneys and is not normally considered to be an essential amino acid. However, in times of heightened catabolism and need--such as during extreme stress, trauma, injury, or infection--it becomes essential to the maintenance of optimal health.

Arginine plays a key role in the urea cycle, the metabolic pathway by which urea is created. Urea is used to dispose of excess nitrogen, which can be toxic if the body cannot excrete it fast enough. Arginine is converted to ornithine, which is then used to produce urea in the kidneys. A deficiency in arginine can impair the urea cycle, resulting in a build-up of urea precursors, and increased levels of ammonia in the plasma. In laboratory animals, arginine deficiency has been shown to result in renal complications; in humans, one characteristic of renal (kidney) failure is arginine deficiency. Arginine is also a precursor for nitric oxide, which plays an important role in immune function, neurotransmission, and platelet aggregation and adhesion.

Ornithine plays a key role in the urea cycle, and alpha-ketoglutarate plays a key role in another metabolic pathway--the Krebs cycle. Ornithine also stimulates the synthesis of RNA, DNA, and protein.

Ornithine has been demonstrated to be quite effective in promoting muscle repair and maintaining nitrogen balance after stresses such as trauma or surgery. Nitrogen balance is the ratio of nitrogen ingested (in the form of protein and amino acids) versus nitrogen excreted. In a normal, healthy adult, nitrogen balance should be zero. A negative nitrogen balance occurs when protein is being synthesized. This is a common result of surgery, injury, extreme stress, or excessive exercise. Extensive research in both laboratory animals and in humans indicates that supplementation with Ornithine can alleviate these negative effects.

Recommended dosage:
2gms to 5 gms per day on an empty stomach.

Caution:
Use only as directed. Not for use by diabetics, borderline diabetics, pregnant or lactating women, cancer patients or persons who have had ocular or brain herpes. High dietary levels of arginine and/or ornithine may cause reactivation of latent herpes viruses in a few susceptible individuals. If this occurs, discontinue use. Persons with phenylketonuria (PKU) should not take this product.

L Arginine

  • As always, we strongly advise you do your own research and more importantly consult your own medical professional before commencing any use of this or any other dietary supplement .This statement has not been evaluated by the FDA. This is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any diseaseResearch studies document that nitric oxide from Arginine has a positive effect increasing muscle mass.
    • When test animals were given extra Arginine the animals sarcomeres, or muscle fibres, increase in diameter.
    • In addition to Nitric Oxide production increased muscle growth was observed.
    • Muscle fibre growth occurred at an accelerated rate.
    • L-Arginine is in most natural Sexual performance Formulas.
  • There is abundant evidence that the endothelium plays a crucial role in the maintenance of vascular tone and structure.

    One of the major endothelium-derived vasoactive mediators is nitric oxide (NO), an endogenous messenger molecule formed in healthy vascular endothelium from the amino acid precursor L-arginine. Endothelial dysfunction is caused by various cardiovascular risk factors, metabolic diseases, and systemic or local inflammation. One mechanism that explains the occurrence of endothelial dysfunction is the presence of elevated blood levels of asymmetric dimethyl arginine (ADMA) an L-arginine analogue that inhibits NO formation and thereby can impair vascular function. Supplementation with L-arginine has been shown to restore vascular function and to improve the clinical symptoms of various diseases associated with vascular dysfunction
  • .

  • Recently, dietary supplements containing Arginine have become popular due to Arginine's nitric oxide producing ability, its ability to scavenge free radicals, as well as its ability to signal muscle cells, support healthy cholesterol, and enhance fat metabolism. Arginine helps regulate salt levels in the body.


  • For this reason it should be of interest to competing bodybuilders, as retaining water under the skin can make one looks smooth, bloated and washed out. The nitrogen retaining abilities of Arginine are well-known within the bodybuilding and scientific communities. Arginine is also believed to be crucial for muscle growth due to its vasodilation abilities, as well as its ability to participate in protein synthesis.


  • Because Arginine is a precursor of nitric oxide [which is responsible for vasodilation it is often used to enhance the female sexual experience and for supporting healthy male sexual function.Arginine is necessary for the execution of many physiological processes. These physiological processes include the removal of toxic waste products from the body, and immune system defences.


  • Arginine increases muscle protein synthesis. L Arginine is an Essential amino acid that the body cannot make naturally. There is abundant evidence that the endothelium plays a crucial role in the maintenance of vascular tone and structure. One of the major endothelium-derived vasoactive mediators is nitric oxide (NO), an endogenous messenger molecule formed in healthy vascular endothelium from the amino acid precursor L-arginine. Endothelial dysfunction is caused by various cardiovascular risk factors, metabolic diseases, and systemic or local inflammation. One mechanism that explains the occurrence of endothelial dysfunction is the presence of elevated blood levels of asymmetric dimethyl arginine (ADMA) an L-arginine analogue that inhibits NO formation and thereby can impair vascular function. Supplementation with L-arginine has been shown to restore vascular function and to improve the clinical symptoms of various diseases associated with vascular dysfunction.
  • L – arginine alpha ketoglutamate bitatrate

    It goes without saying that we don't produce "flavor of the month" supplements.. AAKG is no exception and stands atop an exciting new class of extremely powerful, drug-free Nitric Oxide (NO) enhancers. Potent, Arginine Alpha-Ketoglutarate increase strength, stamina, and vigor and speed your muscle growth and recovery. Nitric Oxide & the power of hemodilationNitric Oxide is the key molecule used by your body to transport oxygen, increase blood flow and deliver nutrients to skeletal muscle. This process is called "hemodilation". When hemodilation is accelerated, and best of all SUSTAINED as Nitro AKG does, you'll start to see some amazing things happen to your body. The positive changes begin in as little as one week... and by the one month mark, you could be seeing muscle fullness and hardness like never before from a drug-free compound. Also, look for increased strength and markedly improved stamina (and not of just the athletic variety).

    L-Arginine & Nitric OxideWhen it comes to isolated amino acids, it has long been known that very high dosages (typically, 10-15 grams) of L-Arginine taken on an empty stomach can boost short term Nitric Oxide and Growth Hormone (GH) levels. Unfortunately, L-Arginine is not very suitable for use as a long term NO elevation agent due to its inherent limitations. Even for GH release, the frequent high dosages required, unpleasant taste, stomach upset, etc. make following an effective regimen impractical, if not flat out impossible for most.

    The technological breakthrough of A-AKGEnter a new, state-of-the-art compound called A-AKG.

    And the results?As alluded to earlier, when used as directed (easy to follow, detailed instructions are included) the overall positive effects of AAKG are extremely wide reaching in scope and often nothing short of phenomenal. Best of all, AAKG is free of the negative side-effects seen with anabolic steroids, clenbuterol, Viagra and other common drug based performance and physique enhancers.
    • Creates a "Continuous Muscle Pump"
    • Signals Muscle Growth - Speeds Recovery
    • Increases Strength, Stamina & Sexual Vigor

    L-Arginine L-Pyroglutamate (APG)

    CONTRAINDICATIONS:
    Hypersensitivity to any component of the preparation.

    PRECAUTIONS:
    Children, pregnant women and nursing mothers should avoid taking arginine pyroglutamate supplements.

    ADVERSE REACTIONS:
    Arginine pyroglutamate is generally well tolerated. Minor gastrointestinal complaints have been noted.OVERDOSAGEThere are no known reports of overdosage.

    DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION:
    The usual recommended dose is 500 to 1000 milligrams daily. A 500 milligram dose delivers about 150 milligrams of L-arginine and about 350 milligrams of pyroglutamate.

    The effects of piracetam are thought to be mediated through effects on membrane fluidity in the brain. Further, some pyrrolidone-nootropic agents appear to interact with metabotropic glutamate receptors. It is not known whether pyroglutamate has any of these activities.

    PHARMACOKINETICS:
    Little is known in detail about the pharmacokinetics of arginine pyroglutamate. Arginine pyroglutamate gets absorbed across the small intestine and is transported by the portal circulation to the liver, where both L-arginine and pyroglutamate enter into various metabolic pathways. Some pyroglutamate appears to pass into the brain.

    INDICATIONS AND USAGE:
    Arginine pyroglutamate may help improve cognition (e.g. verbal memory) in the aged, though more research is required to confirm this.

    RESEARCH SUMMARY:
    The primary claim made for this arginine salt of pyroglutamic acid relates to cognitive enhancement. It is asserted by some that this substance can help overcome memory defects induced by alcohol abuse and in those with some forms of dementia. Some use the supplement in Italy to treat alcoholism, senility and mental retardation. While such sweeping use is unwarranted based on current findings, there are data that suggest a cognitive-enhancing role for arginine pyroglutamate, though how significant a role is far from established. Some animal studies show that the substance has positive effects in cortical and cholinergic mechanisms and that it has cognition-enhancing properties. And in one double-blind study of aged human subjects, verbal memory was said to be improved in those taking arginine pyroglutamate compared with controls who received placebo.

    CONTRAINDICATIONS, PRECAUTIONS, ADVERSE REACTIONS

    ACTIONS:
    Arginine pyroglutamate is reputed to have cognition-enhancing activity. The activity is attributed to pyroglutamate.

    MECHANISM OF ACTION:
    Since the action of arginine pyroglutamate is unclear, its mechanism of action is entirely speculative. However, pyroglutamate is structurally related to the drug piracetam, and more is known about piracetam's activity. Piracetam belongs to a class of drugs known as nootropics. The term "nootropic," from the Greek, means "acting on the mind." Piracetam, like pyroglutamate, is a pyrrolidone. Piracetam and related nootropics facilitate learning and memory in animal models, although human studies give mixed results except perhaps in dyslexia.

    Arginine pyroglutamate, which is comprised of the amino acid L-arginine and the imino acid pyroglutamate, is a water-soluble substance.

    ACTIONS AND PHARMACOLOGY:
    Apg as the focus of world-wide attention in 1981 when Italian researcher A. Isidori, M.D., and his colleagues of the University of Rome determined that a combination of 1200 milligrams L-Lysine and 1200 milligrams L-Arginine L-Pyroglutamate when given orally to a group of 15 male volunteers between the ages of 15 and 20 was more than 10 times more effective at increasing blood levels human growth hormone than taking only the amino acid L-Arginine by itself (yielding a average net HGH increase of more than 700%). According to these researchers, "we could demonstrate that the association of the two amino acids does result in the release of biologically active HGH able to affect peripheral cellular receptors and thus cell growth in general.

    DESCRIPTION:
    Arginine pyroglutamate is the L-arginine salt of pyroglutamic acid. It is also known as pirglutargine and arginine pidolate. Arginine pyroglutamate is a delivery form of pyroglutamate. Pyroglutamate is formed in the body by the cyclization of the amino acid glutamic acid and is found naturally in plant and animal products, including the brain. Pyroglutamate is also known as 2-oxo-pyrrolidone carboxylic acid or PCA and 5-oxoproline. Pyroglutamate is an intermediate of the gamma-glutamyl cycle of glutathione synthesis and degradation.

    ABOUT B.C.A.A’s

    B.C.A.A ‘s are amino acid and are not only essential amino acids but is also a branched-chain found in high concentration in the muscles. l BCAA's are L-Valine ,l-leucine and L-Isoleucine.

    B.C.A.A ‘s can not be made by the body, and must be acquired through food or dietary supplements.What does it do and what scientific studies give evidence to support this?

    It has a stimulating effect and is needed for muscle metabolism, repair and growth of tissue and maintaining the nitrogen balance in the body.

    Since it is a branched-chain amino acid, it can be used as an energy source in the muscles, and in doing so preserves the use of glucose.Who needs it and what are some symptoms of deficiency?B.C.A.A,s are essential amino acids. Therefore, everyone needs BCAA’s to maintain basic health.How much should be taken? Are there any side effects?BCAA’s should be dosed at two parts L-Valine for every two parts L-Leucine and for every one part of L-Isoleucine. This product takes the guess work out and is ready to go .RDA to 5gm per day.

    No side effects have been reported, BCAA is generally considered to be safe for healthy persons.
    Consult your physician before using any dietary supplement.

    GABA amino acid

    GABA stands for gamma-aminobutyric acid, is the product of a biochemical decarboxylation reaction of glutamic acid by the vitamin pyridoxal, as well as from decarboxylase (GAD).GABA is required forGABA is required as an inhibitory neurotransmitter to block the transmission of an impulse from one cell to another in the central nervous system, which prevents over-firing of the nerve cells.

    It is also used for brain metabolism and to treat both epilepsy and hypertension where it is thought to induce tranquility in individuals who have a high activity of manic behavior and acute agitation.

    In combination with inositol and nicotinamide it helps with blocking anxiety and stress related impulses from reaching the motor centers of the brain.

    Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid can be used to calm a person, much like tranquilizers, but without the possibility of addiction.Deficiency of GABAIt has been suggested that a shortage of GABA may cause panic attacks, since an intake of tranquilizers can increase the level of GABA in the body. GABA may also be effective in treating PMS in women.DosageThe dosage listed is .5gm , but be aware that this dosage is the minimum that you require per day, to ward off serious deficiency of this particular nutrient. In the therapeutic use of this nutrient, the dosage is usually increased considerably, but the toxicity level must be kept in mind.

    Dosage has not been established, but it is interesting to note that some research suggests that the supplement Kava (kava is a herbal root used as a supplement) causes more GABA receptors to form in the brain. Toxicity and symptoms of high intakeToxic levels have not been established, but very high intake of GABA may cause anxiety, tingling of extremities, shortness of breath as well as a numb feeling around the mouth.Other interesting pointsIt is sometimes used as sexual a stimulant because of its relaxing capabilities, as well as with prostate problems, since it also assists with the release of sex hormones.

    L-Glutamine

    L-glutamine is the most prevalent amino acid in the blood. Human cells readily manufacture L-glutamine, and under normal circumstances, dietary intake and production of L-glutamine is sufficient. However, in times of stress or increased energy output, the body's tissues need more L-glutamine than usual, making supplementation important.

    Some studies suggest that L-glutamine may boost the immune system. Scientists think that taking L-glutamine orally may enhance the activity of infection-fighting white blood cells and other agents. It may also decrease the permeability of the intestines, thus making it harder for invaders to attack the body.

    One of L-glutamine’s most important functions involves the support of cellular energy, growth and repair. L-glutamine levels have been found to be decreased in endurance athletes who train too often and at high intensity. In fact, these athletes tend to have a higher incidence of infectious diseases and allergies, and have been noted to have swollen lymph nodes and experience slower wound healing. Athletes undergoing a strenuous workout schedule may be able to reduce the risk of infections by supplementing with L-glutamine.What Is L-Glutamine?How To Use It.

    Due to its anti-catabolic properties and the fact that it accelerates glycogen synthesis after a workout, glutamine is best taken 20-30 minutes after a workout. On days that you don't workout, just take it with your last meal of the day. While there is much debate amongst experts as far as dosage is concerned, I always like to remain on the conservative side. Therefore, I feel that 3-5 grams is a sufficient dosage to start with and as your stomach gets used to it you can increase it to as much as 10-15 grams.

    As far as side effects , slight stomach discomfort during the first week of use (straight powder form). Other than that, no other side effects and I have not found any literature that links its use to anything bad.

    Recommend that you start with a low dosage (such as only 3 grams a day) in order to assess your tolerance. From there you can build up to 10-15 grams split in 2-3 servings per day (1 in the morning, 1 after the workout and another one before bed). I would reserve the highest dosage schedule for periods of extremely hard training such as pre-contest training.

    By looking at the effects that this supplement can provide you with, along with the fact that these days it can be purchased for a very cheap price, we wonder why more athletes don't use it. This is especially important during dieting, as a way to protect the muscle from being cannibalized by the effects of cortisol.As always, we strongly advise you do your own research and more importantly consult your own medical professional before commencing any use of this or any other dietary supplement .This statement has not been evaluated by the FDA. This is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease Side.

    Effects DIRECTIONS:
    As a dietary supplement, mix one (1) rounded teaspoon (5g) into 8oz of water or your favorite beverage once thirty (30) minutes before training and once thirty (30) minutes after training. If you are not training/working out just take one (1) rounded teaspoon (5g) a day

    L-Glutamine the most abundant amino acid in muscle cells. It is released from the muscle during times of stress (such as hard weight training workouts) and dieting. This amino acid not only has been shown to be a great anti-catabolic agent (protects the muscle from the catabolic activities of the hormone cortisol), to be a contributor to muscle cell volume, and to have immune system enhancing properties but also to help in the following ways:
    • Regulation of protein synthesis (this is one of the ways in which steroids exert their muscle building effects).
    • Accelerating glycogen synthesis after a workout.
    • Sparing the use of the glycogen stored in the muscle cell (recall that the glycogen stored in the muscle cell is what gives the cell the healthy volume and firmness that you seek).
    • Faster recuperation from weight training workouts.

    L-Dopa Info

    L-Dopa (L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine) is an amino acid that is formed in the liver and converted into dopamine in the brain. It is essential for integrated movement of individual muscle groups.

    Dopamine apparently does not enter the brain from the blood, and is ineffective when it is medically administered. L-Dopa enters the brain through the blood and then it is converted into dopamine.

    Dosage:
    usage 250mg to 500mg per day best before bed.

    What it is:
    L-Dopa is an amino acid, which converts to Dopamine. Dopamine is an essential component of our body and it is required for proper functioning of the brain.

    What it does:
    Although L-Dopa Extract is well known for its treatment of Parkinson's, there are many other benefits. L-Dopa Extract has been shown to significantly increase the body's natural production of human growth hormone (HGH). This is very important because increasing HGH has powerful Health benefits for both men and women.

    The benefits to your body are: Mucuna Pruriens gives us an "All Natural" source of L-Dopa Extract. Because the L-Dopa is extracted from a natural plant source, our body actually absorbs and utilizes a higher percentage. The improved absorption means you experience better results with smaller servings.

    Because the L-Dopa Extract is from an "All Natural" source, the L-Dopa extract has no side effects. With "Mucuna Pruriens" L-Dopa Extract, you have better absorption and no side effectsIt is recommended that you consult your professional health care provider before supplementing L-Dopa into your daily diet.

    L-ORNITHINE ALPHA KETOGLUTARATEOKG

    OKG supplements, taken at doses shown to be effective (10-15 grams per day) glutamine and arginine, which increase growth hormone levels and are regulators of protein synthesis. Studies show that OKG generates more glutamine and arginine in the systemic circulation than when these substances are given orally.

    OKG is a salt formed by combining two molecules of the amino acid ornithine and one molecule of alpha-ketoglutarate. Because OKG seems to be involved in amino acid synthesis and protein availability, many athletes supplement with OKG as a way to increase muscle mass, hormone levels and strength.

    Taking OKG decreases muscle protein catabolism (breakdown) and increases protein synthesis, in addition to promoting wound healing. OKG fulfills these functions by encouraging the secretion of insulin and human growth hormone, and by upregulating glutamine and arginine production. When given to trauma patients, there are significant increases in both IGF-1 and growth hormone levels.

    L-Ornithine

    Ornithine is an amino acid that does not occur in proteins but is important in the formation of urea. L-Ornithine is a nonprotein amino acid. It is used in the body in the biosynthesis of L-arginine, L-proline and polyamines.

    L-Ornithine is a basic amino acid, positively charged at physiological pH. It is also known as alpha,delta-diaminovaleric acid and 2,5-diaminopentanoic acid. Its molecular formula is C5H12N2O2, and its molecular weight is 132.16 daltons.

    L-Ornithine is used as a nutritional supplement principally for its putative anabolic activity. There is little evidence to support this use. However, a derivative of L-ornithine called ornithine alpha-ketoglutarate or OKG may, under certain conditions, have immunomodulatory and anticatabolic and/or anabolic actions.

    Ornithine is important because it induces the release of growth hormone in the body, which in turn helps with fat metabolism. Ornithine is required for a properly functioning immune system and liver. It assists in ammonia detoxification and liver Rejuvenation. Ornithine helps healing and repairing skin and tissue and is found in both these body parts.. Ornithine is helpful for people recouping after surgery and athletes may benefit from this nutrient.

    L-Ornithine can be changed into L-Arginine in the body and it functions similarly in growth hormone release.

    Tribulus terrestris

    It is now being promoted as a booster for the purpose of increasing sex drive. Its use for this purpose originated in Eastern Europe in the 1970's. Independent studies have suggested that Tribulus terrestris extract slightly increases hormone levels, though leaving them in the normal range.

    Some have compared the tonic properties of Tribulus terrestris to the effects of ginseng, but these occur due to entirely different mechanisms. It is also claimed that Tribulus terrestris increases testosterone by increasing gonadotropin-releasing hormone(GnRH) which in turn stimulates the production of LH and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). Testosterone, besides its role in muscle-building and raising fertility and libido, is also known to have a positive effect on bone marrow activity (for red blood cell production) and the immune system.

    On the other hand, one recent study found that T. terrestris caused no increase in testosterone or LH in young men, and another found that a commercial supplement containing androstenedione and herbal extracts, including T. terrestris, was no more effective at raising testosterone levels than androstenedione aloneSupplementWatch does not consider that there is any scientific evidence for effectiveness in muscle building. It suggests that it may be beneficial for those whose testosterone is below normal, such as dieters and overtrained athletes.

    No significant adverse effects have been reported from supplementation with Tribulus terrestris. However, some users report an upset stomach, which can usually be counteracted by taking it with food.protodioscin (PTN), a cousin to DHEA. In a study with mice, Tribulus was shown to enhance mounting activity and erection better than testosterone cypionate. This however, isn't as convincing as one might think. Although an OTC supplement outpacing a pharmaceutical is big news, testosterone cypionate is a synthetic ester of testosterone engineered for its longer activity. To be effective, its level must build up in the system of the animal using it. This process usually takes 2–3 weeks. >. Retrieved on 15 November 2007 The proerectile aphrodisiac properties were concluded to likely be due to the release of nitric oxide from the nerve endings innervating the corpus cavernosum penis. has long been a constituent in tonics in Indian ayurveda practice, where it is known by its Sanskrit name, "gokshura."[ Thumbtack-like Tribulus terrestris thorns are a hazard to bicycle tires Tribulus terrestris.

    Like many weedy species, this plant has many common names. Puncture Vine, Caltrop, Yellow Vine, and Goathead are the most widely used; others include automobile-weed, bindy eye, bindii, bullhead, burnut, burra gokhroo, calthrops, cat's head, common dubbeltjie, devil's thorn, devil's weed, doublegee, dubbeltje, gokshura, ground bur-nut, isiHoho, land caltrop, Maltese cross, Mexican sandbur, puncture weed, rose, small caltrops, sticker, tackweed, and Texas sandbur (also T. micrococcus). is a flowering plant in the family Zygophyllaceae, native to warm temperate and tropical regions of the Old World in southern Europe, southern Asia, throughout Africa, and in northern Australia. It can thrive even in desert climates and poor soil.

    What can tryptophan do for you?

    What events can indicate a need for more tryptophan?· Preventing Niacin DeficiencyTryptophan has two important functions. First, a small amount of the tryptophan we get in our diet (about 3%) is converted into niacin (vitamin B3) by the liver. This conversion can help prevent the symptoms associated with niacin deficiency when dietary intake of this vitamin is low. Raising Serotonin LevelsSecond, tryptophan serves as a precursor for serotonin, a neurotransmitter that helps the body regulate appetite, sleep patterns, and mood. Because of its ability to raise serotonin levels, tryptophan has been used therapeutically in the treatment of a variety of conditions, most notably insomnia, depression, and anxiety.

    Deficiency Symptoms:
    As an essential amino acid, dietary deficiency of tryptophan may cause the symptoms characteristic of protein deficiency, which include weight loss and impaired growth in infants and children.

    When accompanied by dietary niacin deficiency, lack of tryptophan in the diet may also cause pellagra, the classic niacin deficiency disease that is characterized by the "4 Ds" - dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia, and death. This condition is very rare in the United States, however, and cannot occur simply because of a tryptophan deficiency.

    Dietary deficiency of tryptophan may lead to low levels of serotonin. Low serotonin levels are associated with depression, anxiety, irritability, impatience, impulsiveness, inability to concentrate, weight gain, overeating, carbohydrate cravings, poor dream recall, and insomnia. Toxicity Symptoms.

    High dietary intake of tryptophan from food sources is not known to cause any symptoms of toxicity. In addition, tryptophan has been given therapeutically, as a prescription medicine or dietary supplement, in doses exceeding five grams per day with no report of adverse effects.

    However, in 1989, the use of dietary supplements containing tryptophan was blamed for the development of a serious condition called eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome (EMS), which caused severe muscle and joint pain, high fever, weakness, swelling of the arms and legs, and shortness of breath in more than a thousand people. In addition, more than 30 deaths were attributed to EMS caused by tryptophan supplements.

    Many experts believe that the EMS was caused by a contaminant that was found in one batch of tryptophan sold by one manufacturer and occurred in only a small number of susceptible individuals. However, the United States Food and Drug Administration, the agency responsible for overseeing the dietary supplement industry, remained convinced that high doses of tryptophan were categorically unsafe. Since 1989, tryptophan has not been available as a dietary supplement in the United States.

    To date, a Tolerable Upper Intake Level (TUL) for tryptophan has not yet been established by the Institute of Medicine at the National Academy of Sciences. Factors that Affect Function.

    Vitamin B6 is necessary for the conversion of tryptophan to both niacin and serotonin. Consequently, a dietary deficiency of vitamin B6 may result in low serotonin levels and/or impaired conversion of tryptophan to niacin.

    In addition, several dietary, lifestyle, and health factors reduce the conversion of tryptophan to serotonin, including cigarette smoking, high sugar intake, alcohol abuse, excessive consumption of protein, hypoglycemia and diabetes.

    Drug-Nutrient Interactions:
    People taking the anti-depressant medications known as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) (including Prozac, Paxil, and Zoloft) should consult a physician before taking any other supplement or medication that also increases the amount of, or the effect of, serotonin, in the body.

    Nutrient Interactions:
    Vitamin B6, vitamin C, folic acid and magnesium are necessary for the metabolization of tryptophan. In addition, tyrosine and phenylalanine compete with tryptophan for absorption.

    Because of this, some healthcare practitioners believe that food sources of tryptophan do not cause a significant enough increase in blood levels of tryptophan to produce therapeutic results, and that tryptophan must, therefore, be taken as a supplement to increase its blood levels. Form in Dietary Supplements.

    Until 1989, tryptophan supplementation was standard practice in many countries around the world - including the United States - to treat insomnia, depression, and anxiety.

    In the summer and fall of 1989, hundreds of people taking tryptophan supplements in the U.S. began to report the development of serious side effects including muscle and joint pain, high fever, weakness, swelling of the arms and legs, and shortness of breath, a constellation of symptoms that later became known as eosiniphilia-myalgia syndrome (EMS).

    Upon investigation, it was discovered that nearly all of the cases of EMS could be traced back to a contaminant found in one batch of tryptophan produced by a Japanese manufacturer called Showa Denko K.K.

    While all manufacturers of supplemental tryptophan synthesized this amino acid through a fementation process using bacteria, several months before the outbreak of EMS, Showa Denko K.K. had altered its process to make it more efficient and was apparently unaware that a toxic contaminant was being produced.

    The United States Food and Drug Administration took immediate steps to limit the availability of tryptophan, and since 1989 this amino acid has not been sold as a dietary supplement. Tryptophan is still available, however, for use in the manufacture of infant formulas and entereral and parenteral (intravenous) nutritional supplements prescribed by physicians.

    A few years ago, a new tryptophan-like supplement emerged in the U.S. marketplace. This supplement is called 5-hydroxytryptophan or 5-HTP. 5-HTP has been used in much the same way as tryptophan for the treatment of depression and insomnia, and for weight loss.

    The reason is simple: the body ordinarily takes tryptophan and converts it into 5-HTP, and then takes the 5-HTP and converts it into serotonin. By taking 5-HTP, a person is taking a compound that is actually one step closer to serotonin than tryptophan.

    DOSAGE:
    In its most recent 2005 public health recommendations for amino acids (published as the Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids (Macronutrients), National Academies Press, 2005), the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) established a general principle for tryptophan intake. The NAS recommended that all individuals 1 year of age or greater consume 7 milligrams of tryptophan for every 1 gram of food protein. Here is how that recommendation would look for each age and gender group, assuming RDA-level protein intake for each group:
    • Children 1-3 years: 91 mg of tryptophan
    • Children 4-8 years: 133 mg of tryptophan
    • Males 9-13 years: 238 mg of tryptophan
    • Males 14-18 years: 364 mg of tryptophan
    • Males 19 years and older: 392 mg of tryptophan
    • Females 9-13 years: 238 mg of tryptophan
    • Females 14 years and older: 322 mg of tryptophan As always, we strongly advise you do your own research and more importantly consult your own medical professional before commencing any use of this or any other dietary supplement.
    • This statement has not been evaluated by the FDA. This is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any diseaseDepression.
    • Anxiety
    • Irritability
    • Impatience
    • Impulsiveness
    • Inability to concentrate
    • Weight gain or unexplained weight loss
    • Slow growth in children
    • Overeating and/or carbohydrate cravings
    • Poor dream recall
    • Insomnia What is tryptophan?Tryptophan is one of the 10 essential amino acids that the body uses to synthesize the proteins it needs. It's well-known for its role in the production of nervous system messengers, especially those related to relaxation, restfulness, and sleep. What is the function of tryptophan?Help regulate your appetite.
    • Help you sleep better
    • Elevate your mood

    VITAMIN B6

    Vitamin B6 or Pyridoxine is a water-soluble substance that belongs to the B group vitamins.

    About Vitamin B6 is involved in the metabolism of fats and amino acids in the body. Amino acids have many uses in the body, including the production of proteins as well as the creation of special chemicals called neurotransmitters, which enable the nerves in the brain to communicate with one another. Vitamin B6 is essential for the creation of haemoglobin, the substance inside red blood cells that transports oxygen around the body. Vitamin B6 is required for normal brain function and for the production of antibodies to help fight infection.

    About 80% of the Vitamin B6 in the body is located inside the skeletal muscles, where it helps to break down glycogen into glucose (glycogen is a substance made up of long chains of glucose, which the muscles break down and use for energy).

    Vitamin B6 may also help to control the effects of a class of hormones called steroid hormones e.g. oestrogen and testosterone. Certain genetic diseases can affect a person's ability to use Vitamin B6, causing a condition called Vitamin B6 dependency, where large amounts of this nutrient are required to prevent deficiency. Large doses of Vitamin B6 (2 to 6 g per day for at least 2 months) can cause extensive damage to the nerves, which results in impaired sensations in the arms and legs.

    Medical use:
    Always consult your Health Professional to advise you on dosages and any possible medical interactions. Large doses of Vitamin B6 are taken by people with Vitamin B6 dependency diseases, which are genetic conditions that affect a person's ability to use this nutrient in the body.

    Vitamin B6 deficiency can be caused by certain medications, so people taking these medications may be advised by their Doctor to take Vitamin B6 supplements. Certain rare forms of anaemia may be improved by Vitamin B6 supplementation. Vitamin B6, in conjunction with vitamin B12 and folate, may help to reduce the risks of heart disease.

    Deficiency:
    Vitamin B6 deficiency causes changes in the electrical activity in the brain, as well as dermatitis, seizures, anaemia, damage to the nerves that supply sensation to the arms and legs (peripheral neuropathy), redness at the corners of the mouth, known as angular stomatitis, inflammation of the tongue, and inflammation and cracking of the lips. Low levels of Vitamin B6 and folate may cause an increase in the level of a substance called homocysteine in the body. A high homocysteine level is thought to predispose people to heart attack and cardiovascular diseases.

    Sources:
    Foods rich in Vitamin B6 include white meat (poultry and fish), bananas, liver, whole-grain breads and cereals, soyabeans and vegetables. Vitamin B6 is sensitive to ultraviolet light and heat, so large amounts of this nutrient are lost during the cooking process.

    Dosage:
    The recommended dietary intake (RDI) for Vitamin B6 is 1.3 to 1.9 mg per day for adult males and 0.9 to 1.4 mg per day for adult females, although women that are pregnant require an additional 0.1 mg per day and those that are lactating require and additional 0.7-0.8 mg daily.

    ZMA INFORMATION

    ZMA is a synergistic combination of zinc, magnesium and vitamin B6, specifically designed to enhance muscle strength, endurance, and recovery from exercise. Taken before bedtime, ZMA promotes deeper, more restful sleep, which is when maximum healing, and muscle growth takes place. ZMA consists of a unique covalently-bound complex of zinc, magnesium and aspartic acid, which enables the magnesium and zinc to reach the bloodstream at the same time so that the desired synergistic effect can be obtained. ZMA Promotes Restful, Restorative SleepClinically Proven Effectiveness for Strength Training.
    • Increased plasma zinc levels 29.1%, while placebo levels decreased 4.4% (a 33.5% difference)
    • Increased plasma magnesium levels 6.2%, while placebo levels decreased 9.2% (a 15.4% difference)
    • Increased total testosterone levels 32.4%, while placebo levels decreased 10.5% (a 42.9% difference)
    • Increased free testosterone levels 33.5%, while placebo levels decreased 10.2% (a 43.7% difference)
    • Increased IGF-1 levels 3.6%, while placebo levels decreased 21.5% (a 25.1% difference)
    • Increased muscle strength 11.6%, while placebo strength increased only 4.6% (a 2.5-fold difference) Zinc for Cellular Growth and Tissue HealthMagnesium for Energy Production and Neuromuscular FunctionZMA for Low Energy and Muscle Health.
    ZMA was designed to optimize the absorption and availability of zinc and magnesium during peak times of muscle growth. Both the zinc l-monomethionine and zinc/magnesium aspartate in ZMA are unique and highly bioavailable forms of these minerals. The zinc l-monomethionine is absorbed in the front part of the small intestine at the mineral receptor sites, while the zinc/magnesium aspartate is absorbed in the back of the small intestine via an active transport mechanism. In addition, the zinc/magnesium aspartate in ZMA consists of a unique covalently-bound complex of zinc, magnesium and aspartic acid, which enables the magnesium and zinc to reach the bloodstream at the same time so that the desired synergistic effect can be obtained. The addition of vitamin B6 further increases the absorption and utilization of both zinc and magnesium. ZMA for Healthy IGF-1 LevelsZMA should be taken before bed on an empty stomach (2 hours after eating your last meal and at least 30 minutes prior to any other supplements). The product should not be taken with calcium (cheese,milk,etc.), the reason being that calcium blocks the absorption of zinc.RDA for men .5 to 1 gm per day for women .3 to .75 gm per day.

    Insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) is an anabolic hormone that decreases as we age. Growth hormones are essential substances produced in the body that help maintain muscle tissue, and support proper body function. Most growth hormones are secreted during the deep sleep cycle. It is then necessary reach this restorative sleep phase for good health. ZMA naturally promotes the deep sleep cycle, where healthy levels of IGF-1 are produced.

    Unfortunately, zinc and magnesium deficiencies are common, and physical activity can increase the need for these important minerals. Numerous studies show that exercise and stress result in significant losses of zinc and magnesium. According to USDA researchers, when exercise-enhanced mineral losses are coupled with inadequate dietary intakes, athletes are at special risk to mineral deficiencies.

    Magnesium aids in the transport of oxygen to muscle tissue, which promotes strength, endurance and relaxation. Magnesium also activates enzymes necessary for the metabolism of carbohydrates and amino acids.

    Zinc is an anabolic mineral required for the production of growth hormone and testosterone, which promote healing and growth. In addition, zinc helps improve energy by minimizing the build-up of lactic acid in muscle tissue. Zinc is also necessary for the maintenance of a healthy immune system.

    ZMA has been used by dozens of world-class Olympic and professional athletes and bodybuilders, including members of the Super Bowl Champion Denver Broncos and Miami Dolphins football teams. It is also the only non-steroidal, all-natural zinc and magnesium supplement clinically-proven to increase insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) and strength training in athletes. In a recent double-blind, placebo-controlled study conducted with NCAA college football players, researchers at Western Washington University found that eight weeks of nightly supplementation with ZMA.

    ZMA has been developed to improve sleep efficiency. ZMA is reported to effectively enhance sleep and is recommended to be taken 30-60 minutes before bedtime. Healing, anabolic hormone production and muscle growth are maximized during sleep, so quality sleep is extremely important to all of us.

    BERBERINE HCL

    Berberine and Diabetes:
    A collaboration between Chinese, Korean, and Australian scientists at Sydney's Garvan Institute indicates berberine could be helpful. They say "Our studies in animal models of diabetes show that berberine acts in part by activating an enzyme in the muscle and liver that is involved in improving sensitivity of the tissue to insulin. This in turn helps lower blood sugar levels. In addition, it seems berberine can help reduce body weight". "Berberine has been used for decades, if not centuries, with few reported side effects. Given the limitations of existing medicines we are excited to have evidence that berberine may be a helpful new treatment for type 2 diabetes; however, despite its widespread use in traditional medicine practices, it will still have to be evaluated properly following the defined clinical trials process", said Professor James, head of the Garvan's Diabetes & Obesity Research Program and co-author of the Diabetes paper.

    Berberine, blood sugar, cholesterol, and blood pressure:
    Berberine may be helpful in maintaining healthy blood sugar and cholesterol levels in those with type 2 diabetes. Dr. Guang Ning, of Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine in Shanghai and colleagues randomized 116 diabetes patients to receive one gram of berberine daily or placebo for 3 months. Average hemoglobin A1C -- a measure of long-term blood sugar control -- dropped from 7.5 percent to 6.6 percent in those taking berberine supplements. Patients taking berberine also showed significant reductions in total and "bad" LDL cholesterol. Blood pressure also fell in patients taking berberine. Patients on berberine lost 2.3 kilograms (5.1 pounds), on average, compared to 1.3 kilograms (2.9 pounds) for the placebo group. Patients taking berberine were more likely to have a side effect of constipation, and two patients in the berberine group had their dosage reduced for this reason. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, July 2008.

    Berberine Research Update:
    Berberine, a natural product, induces G1-phase cell cycle arrest and caspase-3-dependent apoptosis in human prostate carcinoma cells.

    Mol Cancer Ther. 2006 Feb;5(2):296-308. Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Volker Hall 557, 1670 University Boulevard, Birmingham, AL Berberine, a naturally occurring isoquinoline alkaloid, has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory and antitumor properties in some in vitro systems. Here, we report that in vitro treatment of androgen-insensitive (DU145 and PC-3) and androgen-sensitive (LNCaP) prostate cancer cells with berberine inhibited cell proliferation and induced cell death in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. The effectiveness of berberine in checking the growth of androgen-insensitive, as well as androgen-sensitive, prostate cancer cells without affecting the growth of normal prostate epithelial cells indicates that it may be a promising candidate for prostate cancer therapy.

    Antimicrobial activity of berberine alone and in combination with ampicillin or oxacillin against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. J Med Food. 2005 Winter;8(4):454-61. Department of Food and Nutrition, Kunsan National University, Kunsan.

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteria have been responsible for substantial morbidity and mortality in hospitals because they usually have multidrug resistance. Some natural products are candidates as new antibiotic substances. In the present study, we investigated the antimicrobial activity of berberine, the main antibacterial substance of Coptidis rhizoma (Coptis chinensis Franch) and Phellodendri cortex (Phellodendron amurense Ruprecht), against clinical isolates of MRSA, and the effects of berberine on the adhesion to MRSA and intracellular invasion into human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs). Berberine showed antimicrobial activity against all tested strains of MRSA. These results suggest that berberine may have antimicrobial activity and the potential to restore the effectiveness of beta-lactam antibiotics against MRSA, and inhibit the MRSA adhesion and intracellular invasion in HGFs.

    Hepatobiliary excretion of berberine:
    Drug Metab Dispos. 2004 Apr;32(4):405-12.
    To investigate the detailed pharmacokinetics of berberine and its mechanisms of hepatobiliary excretion, an in vivo microdialysis coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography was performed. In the control group, rats received berberine alone; in the drug-treated group, 10 min before berberine administration, the rats were injected with cyclosporin A (CsA), a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor; quinidine, both organic cation transport (OCT) and P-gp inhibitors; SKF-525A (proadifen), a cytochrome P450 inhibitor; and probenecid to inhibit the glucuronidation. The results indicate that berberine displays a linear pharmacokinetic phenomenon in the dosage range from 10 to 20 mg kg(-1), since a proportional increase in the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) of berberine was observed in this dosage range. Moreover, berberine was processed through hepatobiliary excretion against a concentration gradient based on the bile-to-blood distribution ratio (AUC(bile)/AUC(blood)); the active berberine efflux might be affected by P-gp and OCT since coadministration of berberine and CsA or quinidine at the same dosage of 10 mg kg(-1) significantly decreased the berberine amount in bile. In addition, berberine was metabolized in the liver with phase I demethylation and phase II glucuronidation, as identified by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Also, the phase I metabolism of berberine was partially reduced by SKF-525A treatment, but the phase II glucuronidation of berberine was not obviously affected by probenecid under the present study design.

    Cytotoxic effects of Coptis chinensis and Epimedium sagittatum extracts and their major constituents (berberine, coptisine and icariin) on hepatoma and leukemia cell growth.
    Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2004 Jan-Feb;31(1-2):65-9.

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the cytotoxic effects of Coptis chinensis and Epimedium sagittatum extracts and their major constituents on hepatoma and leukemia cells in vitro. Four human liver cancer cell lines, namely HepG2, Hep3B, SK-Hep1 and PLC/PRF/5, and four leukemia cell lines, namely K562, U937, P3H1 and Raji, were used in the present study. Of the two crude drugs, Coptis chinensis exhibited the strongest activity against SK-Hep1 and Raji cell lines. Icariin (the major compound of E. sagittatum) showed no inhibition of either the hepatoma or leukemia cell lines. The results of the present study suggest that the Coptis chinensis extract and its major constituents berberine and coptisine possess active antihepatoma and anti leukemia activities.

    Effect of berberine on regression of pressure-overload induced cardiac hypertrophy in rats.
    Am J Chin Med. 2002;30(4):589-99.

    Berberine is the basic chemical component of a Chinese herb, Coptis chinensis Franch (coptis), considered to be useful in treating some diseases of the cardiovascular system, such as hypertension and chronic heart failure (CHF). In this study, we investigate the inhibitory effect of berberine on experimental cardiac hypertrophy, which is regarded as a risk factor of CHF and other heart diseases. Forty-two male SD rats were divided into four groups: age-matched control, aortic banding model, berberine-treated group and captopril-treated group. Cardiac hypertrophy was induced by suprarenal abdominal aorta constriction (banding). The drugs were orally administered for 8 weeks starting from 4 weeks after surgery at dosage of berberine 10 mg/kg and captopril 50 mg/kg. Blood pressure (BP) was measured four times during the period of the experiment, and hemodynamic parameters, cardiac index, cell size of left ventricular myocardium and total protein of left ventricular tissue were detected 8 weeks after treatment with drugs. The data from the present study showed that: The BP of the aorta banded rats was increased compared with those of the normal and the age-matched control rats, and berberine showed no significant effect on it. After 8 weeks of treatment with berberine, the elevated left ventricular end diastolic pressure (LVEDP) was slightly decreased compared with the aortic banded rats. Meanwhile, the maximum rates of contraction and relaxation (+/- dp/dtmax) was increased and the time to reach the point of maximum rate from beginning of contraction (t-dp/dt) was shortened, indicating that the functions of heart, both contraction and relaxation, were improved. Cardiac growth was inhibited by treatment with berberine. Both whole heart and left ventricular weight were notably decreased compared with the banded rats. The cell size of left ventricular myocardium was significantly reduced and the total protein of left ventricular tissue was slightly down-regulated by treatment with berberine. These data suggest that berberine can improve abnormal cardiac function and can prevent the development of left ventricular hypertrophy induced by pressure-overload. This indicates that it may have therapeutic potential in the treatment of CHF.

    Efficacy and safety of berberine for congestive heart failure secondary to ischemic or idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy.
    Am J Cardiol. 2003 Jul 15;92(2):173-6.

    This study was designed to assess the efficacy and safety of berberine for chronic congestive heart failure. One hundred fifty-six patients with CHF and >90 ventricular premature complexes (VPCs) and/or nonsustained ventricular tachycardia (VT) on 24-hour Holter monitoring were randomly divided into 2 groups. All patients were given conventional therapy for congestive heart failure, consisting of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, digoxin, diuretics, and nitrates. Patients in the treatment group (n = 79) were also given berberine 1.2 to 2.0 g/day. The remaining 77 patients were given placebo. Symptoms, a 6-minute walk test, left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF), frequency and complexity of VPCs, and quality of life were assessed after 8 weeks of treatment and during a mean 24-month follow-up. After treatment with berberine, there was a significantly greater increase in LVEF, exercise capacity, improvement of the dyspnea-fatigue index, and a decrease of frequency and complexity of VPCs compared with the control group. There was a significant decrease in mortality in the berberine -treated patients during long-term follow-up (7 patients receiving treatment died vs 13 on placebo). Proarrhythmia was not observed, and there were no apparent side effects. Thus, berberine improved quality of life and decreased VPCs and mortality in patients with congestive heart failure.

    Effect of berberine on bone mineral density in SAMP6 as a senile osteoporosis model.
    Biol Pharm Bull. 2003 Jan;26(1):110-1.

    The effects of berberine in senescence accelerated mice P6 (SAMP6) were investigated to learn whether the alkaloid affects bone mineral density (BMD). Oral administration of berberine (10 mg/kg/d) to male and female mice for 22 weeks resulted in an increase in BMD in both sexes. A decreased concentration of deoxypyridinoline (Dpd) in urine was only observed in female mice. There was no effect on body or tibia weight or on the concentration of procollagen type I carboxyterminal extension peptide (PICP) in serum. A comparative study on the anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive and antipyretic effects of isoquinoline alkaloids from the roots of Turkish Berberis species. Life Sci. 2002 Dec 27;72(6):645-57. Roots and barks of various Berberis species are used as folk remedy for the treatment of various inflammatory diseases such as lumbago, rheumatism and to reduce fever. Six isoquinoline alkaloids namely berberine, berbamine, palmatine, oxyacanthine, magnoflorine, and columbamine were isolated as the main components of alkaloidal fraction from the roots of Turkish Berberis species and effects were studied using various in vivo models in mice. All alkaloids inhibited inflammations in varying degrees, among them berberine, berbamine and palmatine were shown to possess significant and dose-dependent inhibitory activity against serotonin-induced hind paw oedema both on oral and topical applications and acetic acid-induced increase in vascular permeability on oral administration. Moreover, these three alkaloids were also shown to possess dose-dependent antinociceptive activity, which assessed by using the model based on the inhibition of p-benzoquinone-induced writhing movements as well as antipyretic activity on FCA-induced increased rectal temperature on subacute administration. However, all alkaloids induced gastric lesions in varying degrees.

    Inhibitory effects of berberine on IK1, IK, and HERG channels of cardiac myocytes.
    Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2001 Feb;22(2):125-31.

    To study the effects of berberine on inward rectifier potassium current (IK1) and outward delayed rectifier potassium current (IK) of guinea pig ventricular myocytes, and on human ether-a-go-go related gene (HERG) channel expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Berberine prolonged action potential duration (APD) and inhibited IK1 and IK in a concentration-dependent manner. Berberine 100 micromol/L increased APD90 from (450 +\- 48) ms to (888 +\- 90) ms, and inhibited IK1 by 65 %. Berberine 50 micromol/L inhibited IK by 57 %, IKtail by 53 %. Berberine produced a voltage-dependent block on IK that increased with stronger depolarization, and once all channels were activated, there was no further block at positive potentials. Berberine blocked the HERG channels potently with an IC50 value of approximately 75 micromol/L. This block was voltage-dependent, suggesting that it probably bind to either open or inactivated HERG channels. Berberine prolonged APD and possessed blocking effect on IK1, IK, and HERG channel expressed in Xenopus oocytes. The antiarrhythmic mechanism of berberine is related to its inhibitory effects on IK1, IK, and HERG channel.

    Cardiovascular actions of berberine:
    Cardiovasc Drug Rev. 2001 Fall;19(3):234-44.

    Berberine, is an alkaloid from Hydrastis canadensis L., Chinese herb Huanglian, and many other plants. It is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine as an antimicrobial in the treatment of dysentery and infectious diarrhea. This manuscript describes cardiovascular effects of berberine and its derivatives, tetrahydroberberine and 8-oxoberberine. Berberine has positive inotropic, negative chronotropic, antiarrhythmic, and vasodilator properties. Both derivatives of berberine have antiarrhythmic activity. Some cardiovascular effects of berberine and its derivatives are attributed to the blockade of K+ channels (delayed rectifier and K(ATP)) and stimulation of Na+ -Ca(2+) exchanger. Berberine has been shown to prolong the duration of ventricular action potential. Its vasodilator activity has been attributed to multiple cellular mechanisms. The cardiovascular effects of berberine suggest its possible clinical usefulness in the treatment of arrhythmias and/or heart failure.

    D-RIBOSE

    D-ribose might be unfamiliar to you, but is an entirely natural compound made by your body throughout life. Technically, D-ribose a pentose sugar, or a 5-carbon sugar (more familiar sugars like glucose and fructose have 6 carbon atoms). As part of RNA and DNA, D-ribose is needed for cell maintenance and growth. But the exciting thing about D-ribose is that it initiates the production of the critical energy molecule ATP. ATP is the primary energy source for cells but is rapidly depleted in muscle tissue by strenuous exercise. Since, creatine helps to recharge spent ATP (known as ADP) and D-ribose initiates the production of ATP, combining creatine with D-ribose is a great way to support robust cellular energy levels. D-ribose powder is becoming a core supplement for those looking to maximize their energy levels in a healthy way, without the drawbacks of stimulant ingredients. D-ribose is available in powder; most people use the powder. D-ribose is a neutral tasting, slightly sweet granular powder that's very easy to take 'straight', or can be mixed into other liquids. Most people take D-ribose directly, first thing in the morning with a glass on water and a second dose later in the day. A serving of D-ribose is 5 grams, and most people take 5-20 grams daily.

    ISOLEUCINE

    Increase Endurance And Help Repair Muscle Tissue!

    L-ARGININE & L-ORNITHINE INFO

    Isoleucine is an amino acid that is best known for its ability to increase endurance and help heal and repair muscle tissue. This amino acid is especially important to serious athletes and body builders because its primary function in the body is to boost energy and help the body recover from strenuous physical activity.

    Isoleucine is a branched-chain amino acid (BCAA). There are three branched-chain amino acids in the body, isoleucine, valine, and leucine, and all of them help promote muscle recovery after exercise. Isoleucine is actually broken down for energy within the muscle tissue.Isoleucine is an essential acid, which means that it cannot be manufactured in the body and must be obtained through dietary sources. People that exercise a lot or that have a low-protein diet should consider supplementation. Isoleucine should always be taken together with the other two branched-chain amino acids, leucine and valine. The ideal balance is 2 milligrams of leucine and valine for each 1 milligram of isoleucine.

    How to Use Tretinoin (Retin-A)Treatment Retin-A· TretinoinSide Effects of Retin-A

    The effect of increased skin cell turnover can be irritation and flaking. For this reason, many people stop using Retin-A after a couple of days to weeks, then think that it didn't work. It is important to realize that Retin-A is very effective for whiteheads and blackheads, but it may take 6-9 weeks to see a noticeable difference. It takes at least 6 months to see a noticeable difference in wrinkles. The best benefit is seen if Retin-A is used for at least a year. · Apply Retin-A in a thin layer at night. A small amount goes a long way. · In the morning wash your face with a mild facial scrub or rough wash cloth. This will help reduce the noticeable flaking. · After washing, apply a good water-based moisturizer. Yes, guys, this applies to you too. The moisturizer will make the drying effect of the medicine more tolerable. · If flaking occurs during the day use a wash cloth to remove it and apply more moisturizer, or just apply moisturizer. · Try using a moisturizer that also contains a sunscreen. If not, apply sunscreen anytime you are in the sun even for a short amount of time. Tretinoin makes you more susceptible to sunburn. · When you first start using Retin-A, apply it every other night or every 3rd night. The flaking and irritation side effects are usually the worst in the first 2 weeks of application. As your skin adjusts to the medicine, you can apply it more frequently. · If you notice an increase in the irritation or flaking, it's ok to take a break for a couple of days. Just don't stop completely without consulting your health care provider! (Retin-A, Avita, Renova) is a derivative of Vitamin A and is the treatment of choice for comedonal acne, or whiteheads and blackheads. It works by increasing skin cell turnover promoting the extrusion of the plugged material in the follicle. It also prevents the formation of new comedones. Tretinoin is also the only topical medication that has been proven to improve wrinkles.

    VITAMIN B6Introduction

    Vitamin B6 or Pyridoxine is a water-soluble substance that belongs to the B group vitamins.

    About Vitamin B6 is involved in the metabolism of fats and amino acids in the body. Amino acids have many uses in the body, including the production of proteins as well as the creation of special chemicals called neurotransmitters, which enable the nerves in the brain to communicate with one another. Vitamin B6 is essential for the creation of haemoglobin, the substance inside red blood cells that transports oxygen around the body. Vitamin B6 is required for normal brain function and for the production of antibodies to help fight infection.

    About 80% of the Vitamin B6 in the body is located inside the skeletal muscles, where it helps to break down glycogen into glucose (glycogen is a substance made up of long chains of glucose, which the muscles break down and use for energy).

    Vitamin B6 may also help to control the effects of a class of hormones called steroid hormones e.g. oestrogen and testosterone. Certain genetic diseases can affect a person's ability to use Vitamin B6, causing a condition called Vitamin B6 dependency, where large amounts of this nutrient are required to prevent deficiency. Large doses of Vitamin B6 (2 to 6 g per day for at least 2 months) can cause extensive damage to the nerves, which results in impaired sensations in the arms and legs.

    Medical use:
    Always consult your Health Professional to advise you on dosages and any possible medical interactions. Large doses of Vitamin B6 are taken by people with Vitamin B6 dependency diseases, which are genetic conditions that affect a person's ability to use this nutrient in the body.

    Vitamin B6 deficiency can be caused by certain medications, so people taking these medications may be advised by their Doctor to take Vitamin B6 supplements. Certain rare forms of anaemia may be improved by Vitamin B6 supplementation. Vitamin B6, in conjunction with vitamin B12 and folate, may help to reduce the risks of heart disease.

    Deficiency:
    Vitamin B6 deficiency causes changes in the electrical activity in the brain, as well as dermatitis, seizures, anaemia, damage to the nerves that supply sensation to the arms and legs (peripheral neuropathy), redness at the corners of the mouth, known as angular stomatitis, inflammation of the tongue, and inflammation and cracking of the lips. Low levels of Vitamin B6 and folate may cause an increase in the level of a substance called homocysteine in the body. A high homocysteine level is thought to predispose people to heart attack and cardiovascular diseases.

    Sources:
    Foods rich in Vitamin B6 include white meat (poultry and fish), bananas, liver, whole-grain breads and cereals, soyabeans and vegetables. Vitamin B6 is sensitive to ultraviolet light and heat, so large amounts of this nutrient are lost during the cooking process.

    Dosage:
    The recommended dietary intake (RDI) for Vitamin B6 is 1.3 to 1.9 mg per day for adult males and 0.9 to 1.4 mg per day for adult females, although women that are pregnant require an additional 0.1 mg per day and those that are lactating require and additional 0.7-0.8 mg daily.

    Please stop by again. Thank you for your interest!