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Acetyl L Carnitine

One of the key uses of Acetyl l Carnitine supplement is for fatty acid oxidation helping users burn unwanted body fat. Fatty acids are one the key energy sources the body uses and oxidation is the process by which they're broken down to create energy. The fatty acids cannot penetrate the inner mitochondria membrane (where they are burned for energy), and the key role for L-Carnitine is to transport fatty acids across the mitochondria membrane to allow for oxidation of the fats.

Acetyl l Carnitine BENEFITS of according to published studies:
  • Acetyl l carnitine may improve mental fatigue in those who suffer from chronic fatigue syndrome.Patients with multiple sclerosis are helped by acetyl l carnitine, which reduces their fatigue.
  • In aging rats, chronic administration of acetyl l carnitine increases cholinergic synaptic transmission and consequently enhances learning capacity. The memory of aging rats is rejuvenated by giving them a combination of acetyl l carnitine and lipoic acid.
  • Acetyl l carnitine is a promising nutrient for those with diabetic neuropathy. >This nutrient could be helpful in chemotherapy induced peripheral neuropathy.
  • May reduce alcohol-induced cellular damage to organs.
  • May be helpful in geriatric patients with mild depression.
  • Acetyl l carnitine improves the function of mitochondria, the organelles within cells that are involved in energy production.
  • May be effective in the therapy of acute and early chronic Peyronie's disease.
  • May help individuals with degenerative cerebellar ataxia.
  • Acetyl l carnitine is suitable for clinical use in the reduction of neuronal death after peripheral nerve trauma.
May be helpful in those with Alzheimer's disease. Acetyl l carnitine protects against amyloid-beta neurotoxicity.As always, we strongly advise you do your own research and more importantly consult your own medical professional before commencing any use of this or any other dietary supplement .This statement has not been evaluated by the FDA. This is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease>L Carnitine is derived from the lysine and methionine amino acids. It is mainly synthesized in the liver and the kidneys, and must be transported for use to other tissues in the body. It is found in highest concentration in tissues that use fatty acids as the main dietary fuel, such as the skeletal and cardiac muscles.


Assists removal of ammonia from central nervous system. DOSAGE : 500mg PER DAY OR AS DIRECTEDAlpha-ketoglutaric (AKG) is an organic acid that is important for the proper metabolism of all essential amino acids and the transfer of cellular energy in the citric acid cycle. It is a precursor to glutamic acid, the non-essential amino acid involved in protein synthesis and the regulation of blood glucose levels. In combination with L-glutamate, AKG can reduce levels of ammonia formed in the brain, muscles and kidneys, as well as help balance the body’s nitrogen chemistry and prevent nitrogen excess in body tissues and fluids. Individuals with high protein intake, bacterial infections, or gastrointestinal dysbiosis may benefit from supplemental AKG to help balance ammonia levels and protect tissues.Alpha-ketoglutaric acid (a-KG) is a naturally-occurring chemical, formed primarily as part of the citric acid cycle inside cells. One of its most important functions is to detoxify ammonia from tissues of the central nervous system. In the brain and central nervous system, alpha-keto combines with ammonia to form glutamic acid and then glutamine. Glutamine crosses the brain-blood barrier and transports the ammonia out of the brain. Alpha-ketoglutaric also scavenges nitrogen released by the catabolism of amino acids, thereby balancing the body’s nitrogen chemistry and preventing nitrogen overload in body tissues and fluids.

As a result of excessive protein ingestion or poor amino acid metabolism, excess nitrogen and ammonia can accumulate in cell tissue. Bacterial infections and intestinal dysbiosis can also elevate ammonia levels in the body. High levels of ammonia or nitrogen in the body can deplete the supply of alpha-keto, allowing ammonia to reach toxic levels. The consequences of excess ammonia (hyperammonemia) may include headaches (migraine), fatigue, irritability, nausea, and diarrhea. Ammonia can attack lipid membranes such as the myelin sheath of neurons. Chronically elevated ammonia in brain tissues can lead to mental confusion and decreased cognitive abilities.

Individuals with high protein intake, problems in nitrogen detoxification or intestinal dysbiosis may benefit from supplemental alpha-ketoglutaric as a central nervous system detoxifier.

Other conditions associated with elevated ammonia levels include:
  • Autism Spectrum disorders
  • Excess aluminum exposure
  • Magnesium deficiency
  • Manganese deficiency
  • Liver disease (cirrhosis)
  • Reyes syndrome
  • Urea cycle dysfunctions
  • Exposure to toxic nitrogen chemicals such as amines, hydrazines, ammonium compounds.
Other functions of alpha-ketoglutaric which may suffer as a result of depletion include:

Production of cellular energy via the chemical transfer of energy during the citric acid cycle. (Alpha-ketoglutaric has been found to be helpful in alleviating fatigue and increasing stamina.) Formation of carnitine, necessary for proper metabolism of fats. (Inadequate carnitine may result in elevated triglycerides.) Formation of a biologically active coenyzme form of vitamin B3.

Alpha Lipoic Acid (ALA)

Alpha Lipoic Acid serves as a coenzyme in the energy production process in the cells which can provide quick bursts of energy. Alpha Lipoic Acid is unique in that it is both water and fat soluble which allows it to enter all parts of the cell to neutralize free radicals. Alpha Lipoic Acid contributes to invigorating mental and physical energy and a reduction in muscle fatigue. Dr. Lester Packer, a leading researcher in the area of antioxidants and a professor of molecular and cell biology at the University of California at Berkeley says "Alpha-Lipoic acid could have far-reaching consequences in the search for prevention and therapy of chronic degenerative diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease" .... "and because it’s the only antioxidant that can easily get into the brain, it could be useful in preventing damage from a stroke".

Common uses for supplemental alpha Lipoic Acid:
Suggested dosage for R-Alpha Lipoic Acid is 100 mg two to three times daily. · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · May be useful in relieving syptoms of stomatopyrosis, or Burning Mouth Syndrome (BMS).Important for regulating aspects of the immune system, in particular immune cells called T-lymphocytes. Because both alpha lipoic acid and dihydrolipoic acid are antioxidants, their combined actions give them greater antioxidant potency than any natural antioxidant now known. Easily absorbed when taken orally and once inside cells is quickly converted to its most potent form, dihydrolipoic acid. Not only does it act as an antioxidant itself, it also stimulates production of glutathione (an antioxidant produced by the body), giving cells a double dose of antioxidant. Prevents tissue damage and death after a heart attack. Significantly increase survival in rats that have suffered a stroke if given before the stroke occurs. Recycles and enhances the effects of other antioxidants such as Vitamin E and Vitamin C. Inhibits Glycation which is responsible for accelerated tissue damage. Chelates (grabs) heavy metals and binds them reducing these oxidants from blood system. May help improve memory. May help reduce LDL (bad) blood cholesterol. Neutralizes free radicals. Unlike Vitamin C which is water soluble and Vitamin E which is fat soluble, alpha Lipoic Acid is both water and fat soluble which allows it to enter all parts of the cell to neutralize free radicals. Important for the production of energy inside the cell by utilizing sugar to produce energy contributing to mental and physical stamina. May help prevent the onset of type 2 diabetes. May play a role in controlling blood sugar. Currently used in Europe to treat peripheral nerve degeneration (neuropathy) resulting from diabetes.


The amino acid arginine is a powerful immune enhancer. It plays a role in such diverse body functions as circulation and sexual function. Ornithine has many of the same properties. Teaming these two powerhouses makes a safe, natural and effective supplement for immune system enhancement.

Arginine is synthesized in the liver and kidneys and is not normally considered to be an essential amino acid. However, in times of heightened catabolism and need--such as during extreme stress, trauma, injury, or infection--it becomes essential to the maintenance of optimal health.

Arginine plays a key role in the urea cycle, the metabolic pathway by which urea is created. Urea is used to dispose of excess nitrogen, which can be toxic if the body cannot excrete it fast enough. Arginine is converted to ornithine, which is then used to produce urea in the kidneys. A deficiency in arginine can impair the urea cycle, resulting in a build-up of urea precursors, and increased levels of ammonia in the plasma. In laboratory animals, arginine deficiency has been shown to result in renal complications; in humans, one characteristic of renal (kidney) failure is arginine deficiency. Arginine is also a precursor for nitric oxide, which plays an important role in immune function, neurotransmission, and platelet aggregation and adhesion.

Ornithine plays a key role in the urea cycle, and alpha-ketoglutarate plays a key role in another metabolic pathway--the Krebs cycle. Ornithine also stimulates the synthesis of RNA, DNA, and protein.

Ornithine has been demonstrated to be quite effective in promoting muscle repair and maintaining nitrogen balance after stresses such as trauma or surgery. Nitrogen balance is the ratio of nitrogen ingested (in the form of protein and amino acids) versus nitrogen excreted. In a normal, healthy adult, nitrogen balance should be zero. A negative nitrogen balance occurs when protein is being synthesized. This is a common result of surgery, injury, extreme stress, or excessive exercise. Extensive research in both laboratory animals and in humans indicates that supplementation with Ornithine can alleviate these negative effects.

Recommended dosage:
2gms to 5 gms per day on an empty stomach.

Use only as directed. Not for use by diabetics, borderline diabetics, pregnant or lactating women, cancer patients or persons who have had ocular or brain herpes. High dietary levels of arginine and/or ornithine may cause reactivation of latent herpes viruses in a few susceptible individuals. If this occurs, discontinue use. Persons with phenylketonuria (PKU) should not take this product.

L Arginine

  • As always, we strongly advise you do your own research and more importantly consult your own medical professional before commencing any use of this or any other dietary supplement .This statement has not been evaluated by the FDA. This is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any diseaseResearch studies document that nitric oxide from Arginine has a positive effect increasing muscle mass.
    • When test animals were given extra Arginine the animals sarcomeres, or muscle fibres, increase in diameter.
    • In addition to Nitric Oxide production increased muscle growth was observed.
    • Muscle fibre growth occurred at an accelerated rate.
    • L-Arginine is in most natural Sexual performance FormulasThere is abundant evidence that the endothelium plays a crucial role in the maintenance of vascular tone and structure.
    One of the major endothelium-derived vasoactive mediators is nitric oxide (NO), an endogenous messenger molecule formed in healthy vascular endothelium from the amino acid precursor L-arginine. Endothelial dysfunction is caused by various cardiovascular risk factors, metabolic diseases, and systemic or local inflammation. One mechanism that explains the occurrence of endothelial dysfunction is the presence of elevated blood levels of asymmetric dimethyl arginine (ADMA) an L-arginine analogue that inhibits NO formation and thereby can impair vascular function. Supplementation with L-arginine has been shown to restore vascular function and to improve the clinical symptoms of various diseases associated with vascular dysfunction.

  • Recently, dietary supplements containing Arginine have become popular due to Arginine's nitric oxide producing ability, its ability to scavenge free radicals, as well as its ability to signal muscle cells, support healthy cholesterol, and enhance fat metabolism. Arginine helps regulate salt levels in the body.

  • For this reason it should be of interest to competing bodybuilders, as retaining water under the skin can make one looks smooth, bloated and washed out. The nitrogen retaining abilities of Arginine are well-known within the bodybuilding and scientific communities. Arginine is also believed to be crucial for muscle growth due to its vasodilation abilities, as well as its ability to participate in protein synthesis.

  • Because Arginine is a precursor of nitric oxide [which is responsible for vasodilation it is often used to enhance the female sexual experience and for supporting healthy male sexual function.Arginine is necessary for the execution of many physiological processes. These physiological processes include the removal of toxic waste products from the body, and immune system defences.

  • Arginine increases muscle protein synthesis. L Arginine is an Essential amino acid that the body cannot make naturally. There is abundant evidence that the endothelium plays a crucial role in the maintenance of vascular tone and structure. One of the major endothelium-derived vasoactive mediators is nitric oxide (NO), an endogenous messenger molecule formed in healthy vascular endothelium froemic or local inflammation. One mechanism that explains the m the amino acid precursor L-arginine. Endothelial dysfunction is caused by various cardiovascular risk factors, metabolic diseases, and systoccurrence of endothelial dysfunction is thpe resence of elevated blood levels of asymmetric dimethyl arginine (ADMA) an L-arginine analogue that inhibits NO formation and thereby can impair vascular function. Supplementation with L-arginine has been shown to restore vascular function and to improve the clinical symptoms of various diseases associated with vascular dysfunction.
  • L – arginine alpha ketoglutamate bitatrate

    It goes without saying that we don't produce "flavor of the month" supplements.. AAKG is no exception and stands atop an exciting new class of extremely powerful, drug-free Nitric Oxide (NO) enhancers. Potent, Arginine Alpha-Ketoglutarate increase strength, stamina, and vigor and speed your muscle growth and recovery. Nitric Oxide & the power of hemodilationNitric Oxide is the key molecule used by your body to transport oxygen, increase blood flow and deliver nutrients to skeletal muscle. This process is called "hemodilation". When hemodilation is accelerated, and best of all SUSTAINED as Nitro AKG does, you'll start to see some amazing things happen to your body. The positive changes begin in as little as one week... and by the one month mark, you could be seeing muscle fullness and hardness like never before from a drug-free compound. Also, look for increased strength and markedly improved stamina (and not of just the athletic variety). L-Arginine & Nitric OxideWhen it comes to isolated amino acids, it has long been known that very high dosages (typically, 10-15 grams) of L-Arginine taken on an empty stomach can boost short term Nitric Oxide and Growth Hormone (GH) levels. Unfortunately, L-Arginine is not very suitable for use as a long term NO elevation agent due to its inherent limitations. Even for GH release, the frequent high dosages required, unpleasant taste, stomach upset, etc. make following an effective regimen impractical, if not flat out impossible for most. The technological breakthrough of A-AKGEnter a new, state-of-the-art compound called A-AKGAnd the results?As alluded to earlier, when used as directed (easy to follow, detailed instructions are included) the overall positive effects of AAKG are extremely wide reaching in scope and often nothing short of phenomenal. Best of all, AAKG is free of the negative side-effects seen with anabolic steroids, clenbuterol, Viagra and other common drug based performance and physique enhancers.

    DOSAGE: 3gm in water / juice before bed• Creates a "Continuous Muscle Pump"
    • Signals Muscle Growth - Speeds Recovery
    • Increases Strength, Stamina & Sexual Vigor (Arginine Alpha-Ketoglutarate) which is not only extremely well tolerated by the body, but has such a vastly superior uptake and retention profile that it makes plain L-Arginine seem akin to a 1973 Ford Escort in comparison to a new, fully loaded Mustang..

    L-Arginine L-Pyroglutamate (APG)

    Hypersensitivity to any component of the preparation.

    Children, pregnant women and nursing mothers should avoid taking arginine pyroglutamate supplements.

    Arginine pyroglutamate is generally well tolerated. Minor gastrointestinal complaints have been noted.

    There are no known reports of overdosage.

    The usual recommended dose is 500 to 1000 milligrams daily. A 500 milligram dose delivers about 150 milligrams of L-arginine and about 350 milligrams of pyroglutamate.

    The effects of piracetam are thought to be mediated through effects on membrane fluidity in the brain. Further, some pyrrolidone-nootropic agents appear to interact with metabotropic glutamate receptors. It is not known whether pyroglutamate has any of these activities.

    Little is known in detail about the pharmacokinetics of arginine pyroglutamate. Arginine pyroglutamate gets absorbed across the small intestine and is transported by the portal circulation to the liver, where both L-arginine and pyroglutamate enter into various metabolic pathways. Some pyroglutamate appears to pass into the brain.INDICATIONS AND USAGEArginine pyroglutamate may help improve cognition (e.g. verbal memory) in the aged, though more research is required to confirm this.RESEARCH SUMMARYThe primary claim made for this arginine salt of pyroglutamic acid relates to cognitive enhancement. It is asserted by some that this substance can help overcome memory defects induced by alcohol abuse and in those with some forms of dementia. Some use the supplement in Italy to treat alcoholism, senility and mental retardation. While such sweeping use is unwarranted based on current findings, there are data that suggest a cognitive-enhancing role for arginine pyroglutamate, though how significant a role is far from established. Some animal studies show that the substance has positive effects in cortical and cholinergic mechanisms and that it has cognition-enhancing properties. And in one double-blind study of aged human subjects, verbal memory was said to be improved in those taking arginine pyroglutamate compared with controls who received placebo.


    Arginine pyroglutamate is reputed to have cognition-enhancing activity. The activity is attributed to pyroglutamate.

    Since the action of arginine pyroglutamate is unclear, its mechanism of action is entirely speculative. However, pyroglutamate is structurally related to the drug piracetam, and more is known about piracetam's activity. Piracetam belongs to a class of drugs known as nootropics. The term "nootropic," from the Greek, means "acting on the mind." Piracetam, like pyroglutamate, is a pyrrolidone. Piracetam and related nootropics facilitate learning and memory in animal models, although human studies give mixed results except perhaps in dyslexia.

    Arginine pyroglutamate, which is comprised of the amino acid L-arginine and the imino acid pyroglutamate, is a water-soluble substance.

    Apg as the focus of world-wide attention in 1981 when Italian researcher A. Isidori, M.D., and his colleagues of the University of Rome determined that a combination of 1200 milligrams L-Lysine and 1200 milligrams L-Arginine L-Pyroglutamate when given orally to a group of 15 male volunteers between the ages of 15 and 20 was more than 10 times more effective at increasing blood levels human growth hormone than taking only the amino acid L-Arginine by itself (yielding a average net HGH increase of more than 700%). According to these researchers, "we could demonstrate that the association of the two amino acids does result in the release of biologically active HGH able to affect peripheral cellular receptors and thus cell growth in general.

    Arginine pyroglutamate is the L-arginine salt of pyroglutamic acid. It is also known as pirglutargine and arginine pidolate. Arginine pyroglutamate is a delivery form of pyroglutamate. Pyroglutamate is formed in the body by the cyclization of the amino acid glutamic acid and is found naturally in plant and animal products, including the brain. Pyroglutamate is also known as 2-oxo-pyrrolidone carboxylic acid or PCA and 5-oxoproline. Pyroglutamate is an intermediate of the gamma-glutamyl cycle of glutathione synthesis and degradation.

    ABOUT B.C.A.A’s

    B.C.A.A ‘s are amino acid and are not only essential amino acids but is also a branched-chain found in high concentration in the muscles. l BCAA's are L-Valine ,l-leucine and L-Isoleucine.

    B.C.A.A ‘s can not be made by the body, and must be acquired through food or dietary supplements.What does it do and what scientific studies give evidence to support this?

    It has a stimulating effect and is needed for muscle metabolism, repair and growth of tissue and maintaining the nitrogen balance in the body.

    Since it is a branched-chain amino acid, it can be used as an energy source in the muscles, and in doing so preserves the use of glucose.Who needs it and what are some symptoms of deficiency?B.C.A.A,s are essential amino acids. Therefore, everyone needs BCAA’s to maintain basic health.How much should be taken? Are there any side effects?BCAA’s should be dosed at two parts L-Valine for every two parts L-Leucine and for every one part of L-Isoleucine. This product takes the guess work out and is ready to go .RDA to 5gm per day.

    No side effects have been reported, BCAA is generally considered to be safe for healthy persons.

    Consult your physician before using any dietary supplement.


    With literally hundreds of different supplements available and so many that are based on bogus claims and ridiculous hype, it's a challenge to find even one that delivers results. If you've rummaged through the garbage of the supplement scrap heap, you know how difficult it is to find solid science or real-world proof.

    The science behind beta-alanine makes sense and it works. In reading this article, you will understand how beta-alanine works. You will also learn how to maximize its use and how it can help you safely work out much harder and longer. Used properly, beta-alanine can take your training and results to new levels, helping you set personal records and add lean mass.

    First lets start with some basic background information on beta-alanine.

    is an exception. This supplement actually lives up to its claim: beta-alanine efficacy is backed by major university, peer-reviewed studies performed on humans, not the typical cell or rat studies upon which many supplement manufacturers generally base claims.

    Background On Beta-Alanine:
    Although only recently brought to the forefront, beta-alanine was discovered over 100 years ago. Also known as 3-aminopropanoic acid, it is a non-essential amino acid and is the only naturally occurring beta-amino acid. Not to be confused with alanine, beta- alanine is classified as a non-proteinogenic amino acid as it is not used in the building of proteins.

    The greatest natural dietary sources of beta-alanine are believed to be obtained through ingesting the beta-alanine containing dipeptides: carnosine, anserine and balenine, rather than directly ingesting beta-alanine. These dipeptides are commonly found in protein rich foods such as chicken, beef, pork and fish.

    However, obtaining beta-alanine through these dipeptides is not the only way, as our bodies can synthesize it in the liver from the catabolism of pyrimidine nucleotides which are broken down into uracil and thymine and then metabolized into beta-alanine and B-aminoisobutyrate. Of course, it can also be ingested through direct supplementation which is the focus of this article.

    Recently, researchers began studying beta-alanine and examining its effects on exercise performance and lean body mass. We owe a great deal of credit and respect to the scientists who are in the trenches doing the work and publishing the research on beta-alanine.

    If it wasn't for them, great supplements like beta-alanine and creatine might never have seen the light of day. Their ongoing research has revealed how to properly use these compounds and how to safely and effectively maximize their benefits.

    One of the key scientists pioneering the performance research on beta-alanine is Dr. Roger Harris. His name may or may not sound familiar, but it should, as he is the same man that brought creatine to the bodybuilding world with his groundbreaking study in 1992.

    It looks like the good doctor has found another juggernaut of a supplement in beta-alanine. However, he is not alone. In the last two years, highly respected research scientist Dr. Jeffrey Stout has been in a frenzy publishing and compiling research on beta-alanine and doesn't look to be slowing down any time soon. Other notable researchers who have been publishing research on beta-alanine include Dr. Tallon, Dr. Hill and Dr. Kim.

    How Can Beta-Alanine Benefit Me?

    Below is a list of the benefits of beta-alanine. But before we go on to explain how beta-alanine works, you must first understand what's going on in our body's during exercise that limits our gains and muscular performance.

    Benefits of Beta-Alanine as supported by Scientific Studies:
    • Boosts explosive muscular strength and power output.
    • Increases muscle mass.
    • Boosts muscular anaerobic endurance.
    • Increases aerobic endurance.
    • Increases exercise capacity so you can train harder and longer. What Stops Us From Reaching Our Full Potential In Making Strength, Endurance And Muscle Mass Gains?
    When we exercise, especially when it's high intensity exercise, our bodies accumulate a large amount of hydrogen ions (H+), causing our muscles' pH to drop (become more acidic). This process is occurring whether you feel a burn or not.

    The breakdown of ATP and the subsequent rise in H+ concentrations occur in all of our energy systems but H+ buildup is most prevalent in an energy system called glycolysis, which also produces lactic acid. At physiological pH, lactic acid dissociates H+ and is the primary source of released H+ ions during exercise, causing pH to drop.

    It is the released H+ from lactic acid that causes muscular performance problems, not the leftover lactate ions as many incorrectly believe. While lactic acid is the primary source of released H+, it is not the only source. H+ ions are also being released at a rapid rate when you break down the high energy compound ATP during exercise. With the presence of many sources during energy production releasing H+, pH drops quickly.

    As our muscles pH quickly drops, so does their ability to contract forcibly and maintain a high level of performance throughout your workout session. Not being able to perform and maintain forceful muscular contractions and push your body to the limit during your workout session, seriously hampers your ability to maximally overload your muscles and force new muscle gains.

    In a nutshell, H+ causes your muscles pH to drop, in turn decreasing your strength and causing you to fatigue faster. These limitations stop you from adequately overloading your muscles and forcing NEW muscle gains. Strength, Endurance And Muscle Mass?

    To understand how beta-alanine works to fight the drop in pH within our muscle, you must first understand how carnosine works. The reason being is, beta-alanine's performance benefits are not direct but realized through its ability to boost the synthesis of carnosine. Background On Carnosine The Russian scientist Gulewitsch was the first to identify carnosine in 1900. Eleven years later, he would discover and identify its constituent amino acids, beta-alanine and histidine. Seven years later, Barger and Tutin and Baumann and Ingvaldsen confirmed Gulewitsch's findings. However, it wasn't until 1938 that the first research on carnosine and its effects on muscle buffering were published.

    Carnosine is a naturally occurring di-peptide that is found in both type 1 and type 2 muscle fibers, but is in significantly higher concentrations in type 2 fibers. Type 2 muscle fibers are primarily used in high intensity strength workouts and are most responsive to muscular growth.

    How Does Carnosine Work?
    There are a handful of ways carnosine is thought to impact performance but its most studied function, and the focus of this article, is its role as an intracellular buffer. Carnosine helps stabilize muscular pH by soaking up hydrogen ions (H+) that are released at an accelerated rate during exercise.

    Our bodies work to keep our pH in balance by utilizing various buffering systems. Buffers largely work by soaking up H+ to maintain optimal pH balance, which we need to function most effectively. As mentioned above, our muscles function best in a specific pH range. When pH drops below that range, so does muscular performance. By helping to keep us in a more optimal pH range, our muscles can continue to contract forcibly for a longer time.

    There are a handful of buffering systems that work in our bodies. Some maintain pH in extra cellular fluids (ECF) outside of the cell, while others perform their duties in intracellular fluids (ICF) inside the cell and some perform in both.

    Our focus in this article is on exercise performance and, as mentioned above, the primary source of H+ released during exercise is from lactic acid and ATP breakdown. Take a guess where this breakdown and release of H+ is occurring?

    If you guessed inside our muscles or intracellular, you would be correct. As a result, the first line of defense in absorbing the H+ is going to be the cell from intracellular buffers such as carnosine, not from extra cellular buffers.

    Aside from carnosine being just where we need it, buffering H+ inside our cells, it has additional, unique attributes that make it really shine. Carnosine is unique; in that, other natural buffering systems our bodies use are also used in many other cellular reactions aside from buffering, watering down much of their buffering abilities.

    However, what makes carnosine really exciting, is that by supplementing with extra beta-alanine, we can specifically and dramatically increase carnosine levels. How much, you ask?

    Researchers have shown that when supplementing with beta-alanine for just 4 weeks, we can increase our carnosine concentration by 42-65%. Longer beta-alanine studies going up to 10-12 weeks, show carnosine concentrations increased up to 80%. This is a tremendous increase in an already powerful intracellular buffer.

    It is this large increase in buffering capacity within our muscles that is largely responsible for the strength, lean body mass, power and muscular endurance gains that researchers are seeing from beta-alanine studies. Summary:By boosting carnosine concentrations, with beta-alanine, our type 2 muscle fibers can soak up more H+ and stay in an optimal pH range. By keeping our type 2 muscle fibers in an optimal pH range, they are better able to maintain maximal strength and endurance throughout your workout session and bring on new muscle gains.

    Dosage and Use:
    The best time to take Beta-Alanine is before your workout and if you only take 500mg (.5gm daily then that is definitely the time you want to take it. If you don’t workout everyday, you should still take at least one capsule sometime during the day. If you are taking more than 500mg daily, as in a 15 week cycle, then spread out the capsules you take throughout the day as much as possible, with one dosage always being before your workout, if you workout on that day.


    Have More Energy And Lose More Fat! 1. What is it and where does it come from? Caffeine is an alkaloid; of which there are numerous compounds such as the methylxanthines, with three distinguished compounds: caffeine, theophylline, and theobromine, found in guarana, kola nuts, coffee, tea, cocoa beans, mate and other plants. These compounds have different biochemical effects, and are present in different ratios in the different plant sources.

    Caffeine is the most popular drug on the globe. It is a powerful stimulant to the Central Nervous System. Moderate use seems to be desireable by all, male and female; although excessive use can produce undesireable effects. Caffeine was discovered in 1820. In 1838, it was found that theine, a substance in tea, was identical to caffeine. Six or so caffeine containing plants are used more worldwide as a beverage than any other plants and herbal materials put together. The many caffeinated natural plants are are: Coffee, Tea, Kola, Cocoa, and Guarana. 2. What does it do and what scientific studies give evidence to support this? Caffeine is a power and energy accelerant! It's perfect to super energize your body for powerful workouts. This fast-acting substance delivers the right molecular structure to your energy systems for maximum energy and power output. Caffeine much like Ephedra acts to increase mental alertness and neurologically provide the surge you need to maximize your training. Not just a stimulant, this powerful substance reaches deep into the muscle cell to provide lasting power and delaying the onset of muscle fatigue.

    So how does caffeine work to provide you with maximum energy support and increased endurance? Caffeine affects the CNS causing more alertness and allowing for more intense focus. The chemical structure of caffeine is very similar to that of adenine (a component of ATP, DNA, and cyclic AMP).

    Only the substituents are different. This helps explain caffeine's stimulating effects. It is really close to being an energy metabolite in and of itself! Because of the structural similarities, caffeine can slip right into adenosine receptors, keeping cyclic AMP active rather than it being broken down. When cyclic AMP breaks down, the body's energy supply decreases. Because caffeine fools the body into using enzymes to break it down instead, the cyclic AMP supply remains higher for longer. I bet you always wanted to know that. It increases the potency of aspirin or other analgestics. The majority of caffeine is produced in decaffeinating coffee.

  • Who needs it and are there any symptoms of deficiency?
  • Well, this is an interesting question. Nobody really needs caffeine, but I once read an article that said if all of America were to stop drinking coffee or caffeine-containing soft drinks/beverages, productivity would fall by 70%. So, anyone who wants more alertness and a mental/physical boost could use a little caffeine safely. Anyone who doesn't want to drink coffee or soda could easily supplement their diets with an energy-enhancing supplement that contains caffeine. Deficiency is not an associated problem with caffeine because it is not an essential nutrient.

  • How much should be taken?
  • Are there any side effects? Nonpregnant adults should limit their intake to about 250mg per day. Pregnant women should be even more conservative with their intake. Moderation in all caffeine containing products is the basic rule of thumb for the positive attributes without the undesireable effects of taking too much.

    Carnitine (vitamin Bt)

    Carnitine and lysine. Carnitine is the generic term for a number of compounds that include L-carnitine, L-acetylcarnitine, acetyl-L-carnitine, and L-propionyl carnitine. Carnitine can be synthesised within the body from lysine or methionine. As with all amino acids used directly in the metabolism, carnitine exists in the left-handed form. This isomer is expressed as L-carnitine, as it is usually marketed. Carnitine is eaten in the diet in red meats and dairy products, including breast milk, and is also made in the body from breaking down muscle protein and converting it to carnitine.

    Carnitine is a nutrient responsible for the transport of long-chain fatty acids into the energy-producing centers of the cells (known as the mitochondria). Carnitine plays a critical role in metabolizing a number of other important substances as well, which helps to explain why it holds promise for so many disorders. Carnitine transports fats into the mitochondria, the cellular powerhouse, where these fats are converted into an energy source for the body. Our heart and skeletal muscle tissue rely on fat utilization as a source of energy, and also to spare glycogen. Carnitine helps the body convert fatty acids into energy, which is used primarily for muscular activities throughout the body. The body produces carnitine in the liver and kidneys and stores it in the skeletal muscles, heart, brain, and sperm. Carnitine can also act as an antioxidant and appears to play a role in maintaining the health of nerves and protecting the liver and kidneys from the toxicity of drugs. is a non-essential amino acid produced in the liver, brain and the kidneys from the essential amino acids methionine.

    sources of carnitine include foods of animal origin, such as meat and dairy products. Red meat (particularly lamb) and dairy products are the primary sources of carnitine. Carnitine can also be found in fish, poultry, tempeh (fermented soybeans), wheat, asparagus, avocados, and peanut butter. Cereals, fruits, and vegetables contain little or no carnitine. Carnitine can be manufactured in the body provided the requisite vitamins and minerals are also present. A typical Western diet supplies about 100mg of carnitine per day. It is found mostly in red meats and dairy products. Plant foods are not good sources of carnitine. In general, healthy adults do not require dietary carnitine as carnitine stores are replenished through endogenous synthesis from lysine and methionine in the liver.

    Carnitine (vitamin Bt) functions, uses, and health benefits:
    Carnitine helps transport fatty acids to the powerhouse of the cell. Fatty acids are the main fuel source for heart and skeletal muscle. Long-chain fatty acids require l-carnitine to transport them across the inner membranes of the mitochondria, wherein their metabolism produces bioenergy. L-carnitine can remove short-chain and medium-chain fatty acids from the mitochondria in order to maintain coenzyme A levels in these organelles. L-Carnitine also facilitates the metabolism of carbohydrates and enhances the rate of oxidative phosphorylation. L-Carnitine works synergistically with CO-Q10, an antioxidant and energy co-factor that is found in the inner membrane of the mitochondria.

    Carnitine plays a critical role in metabolizing a number of other important substances as well, which helps to explain why it holds promise for so many disorders. Carnitine mediates the transport of medium/long-chain fatty acids across mitochondrial membranes, facilitating their oxidation with subsequent energy production. Carnitine may have neuroprotective effects. This means that the strong antioxidant properties of acetyl-L-carnitine may help to prevent oxidative damage to nerve cells that are important for brain functioning.

    The strongest evidence for the use of supplemental L-carnitine may be in the management of cardiac ischemia and peripheral arterial disease. It may also more generally be indicated for cardioprotection. It lowers triglyceride levels and increases levels of HDL-cholesterol in some. It is used with some benefit in those with primary and secondary carnitine deficiency syndromes. There is less evidence to support arguments that carnitine is indicated in liver, kidney and immune disorders or in diabetes and Alzheimer's disease.

    Carnitine is used for a small percentage of people who are at risk of liver damage from AEDs and is used for children with multiple seizure types who are taking multiple AEDs. Carnitine is used in emergency situations where there is liver damage caused by valproate, or in cases of valproate overdose. It is used in rare diseases involving problems of the transport of carnitine into the mitochondria.

    L-carnitine has been marketed as a weight loss supplement, because the primary function of carnitine in human cells is to burn fat as a source of energy. Carnitine supplementation may actually help increase energy, burn fat more efficiently and may improve heart and liver health all at the same time.

    Carnitine is recommended as a daily supplement to help maintain blood lipid profile and promote fatty acid utilization within heart muscle. People who take l-carnitine supplements soon after suffering a heart attack may be less likely to suffer a subsequent heart attack, die of heart disease, experience chest pain and abnormal heart rhythms, or develop congestive heart failure. Some studies have shown Carnitine may reduce the pain and complications of lack of oxygen to the heart and improve exercise tolerance in people with existing heart disease.

    The function of carnitine is to help the body use stored fat as fuel. Carnitine is helpful for improving exercise performance. Supplementation with carnitine has been said to enhance lipid oxidation, increase VO2max and decrease the accumulation of lactic acid during exercise.

    Carnitine reduces the incidence of angina and cardiac arrythmias as well as reduces the need for anti-angina and anti-arrythmic medications.

    Acetyl-L-carnitine may be indicated for use in cases of mild Alzheimer's disease, dementia, Down's syndrome, recovery from stroke and for the management of various neuropathies.

    Carnitine (vitamin Bt) dosage, intake, recommended daily allowance (RDA)

    Carnitine is not an essential amino acid and, since it is not a vitamin or a mineral, no RDA or dietary reference intake (DRI) values have been established. The L-isomer of carnitine (L-carnitine) is the only physiologically useful form of carnitine. Recommended doses of l-carnitine supplements vary depending on the health condition being treated. The normal recommended dose appears to be 500 milligrams (MG) to 1,000 mg per day. Then gradually work up to 2 to 4 grams (2,000 to 4,000 mg) per day. Typical doses of supplemental acetyl-L-carnitine are between 500 mgs to 2 gms daily in divided doses. Doses of 2 to 6 grams per day are typically recommended for cardiovascular, sports performance and weight loss benefits. Infant formulas (including total parenteral nutrition solutions) that do not contain carnitine should be supplemented with carnitine to the levels found in human milk, 11.3 mg/L (70 mmol/L).

    Carnitine deficiency

    There are two types of carnitine deficiency, primary and secondary. In both primary and secondary carnintine deficiencies, increased dietary intake and supplements of carnitine can be beneficial. Although the exact mechanism is unknown, it is thought that flooding the body with high concentrations of carnitine assures that some carnitine are able to get into the cells. Carnitine deficiency occurs as a primary genetic defect of carnitine transport and secondary to a variety of genetic and acquired disorders. A person with primary carnitine deficiency has very low levels of carnitine in the blood due to a faulty carnitine transporter which prevents carnitine from getting into the cells where it is needed. The secondary form of carntine deficiency can arise secondary to metalobic disorders in the mitochondria. Blockage of metabolic pathways in the mitochondria leads to a build-up of acyl compounds. Infants are particularly susceptible to carnitine depletion, because the demands of tissue accretion associated with rapid growth exceed the ability of the infant to synthesize carnitine.

    Carnitine overdose, toxicity, side effects

    There have been no reports of toxicity from L-carnitine overdosage. The oral LD50 of L-carnitine in mice is 19.2 grams per kilogram. D-carnitine supplements should be avoided as they interfere with the natural form of L-carnitine and may produce undesirable side effects. L-carnitine supplementation may cause mild gastrointestinal symptoms, including nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps and diarrhea. Adverse effects may include transient nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps and diarrhea. Less frequent reactions may include body odour or gastrointestinal symptoms. Other rare side effects include increased appetite, body odor, and rash.


    Carnosine (beta-alanyl-L-histidine) is a dipeptide of the amino acids beta-alanine and histamines. It is highly concentrated in muscle and brain tissues.

    Researchers in BritainSouth KoreaRussiaand other countries have shown that carnosine has a number of antioxidant properties that may be beneficial. Carnosine has been proven to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) as well as alpha-beta unsaturated aldehydes formed from peroxidation of cell membrane fatty acids during oxidative stress.

    Carnosine can oppose glycation[ and it can chelate divalent metal ions. Chronic glycolysis is suspected to accelerate aging.Carnosine was found to inhibit diabetic nephropathy by protecting the podocytes and mesangial cells. Because of its antioxidant, antiglycator and metal chelator properties, carnosine supplements have been proposed as a general anti-aging therapy.

    Some studies have detected beneficial effects of N-acetyl-carnosine in preventing and treating cataracts of the eyes; in one of these, carnosine was found to reduce cloudiness in rat lenses that were exposed to guanidine to cause cataracts(13)However, claims that carnosine confers these and other posited ophthamological benefits are, as of yet, insufficiently supported for endorsement by the mainstream medical community; Britain's Royal College of Ophthamologists, for instance, has asserted that neither safety nor efficacy has been sufficiently demonstrated to recommend carnosine's use as a topical treatment for cataracts.

    A small 2002 study reported that carnosine improved on a measure of socialization and receptive vocabulary in children with autism. Improvement in this study could have been due to maturation, educational interventions, placebo effect, or other confounds that were not addressed in the study design.[16] Supplemental carnosine may increase corticosterone levels, which can explain the hyperactivity sometimes seen in high doses.

    Typical vegetarian diets are thought to be lacking in carnosine, but whether this has a detrimental effect on vegetarians is controversial.


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    Acetyl L Carnitine

    D-ribose might be unfamiliar to you, but is an entirely natural compound made by your body throughout life. Technically, D-ribose a pentose sugar, or a 5-carbon sugar (more familiar sugars like glucose and fructose have 6 carbon atoms). As part of RNA and DNA, D-ribose is needed for cell maintenance and growth. But the exciting thing about D-ribose is that it initiates the production of the critical energy molecule ATP. ATP is the primary energy source for cells but is rapidly depleted in muscle tissue by strenuous exercise. Since, creatine helps to recharge spent ATP (known as ADP) and D-ribose initiates the production of ATP, combining creatine with D-ribose is a great way to support robust cellular energy levels. D-ribose powder is becoming a core supplement for those looking to maximize their energy levels in a healthy way, without the drawbacks of stimulant ingredients. D-ribose is available in powder; most people use the powder. D-ribose is a neutral tasting, slightly sweet granular powder that's very easy to take 'straight', or can be mixed into other liquids. Most people take D-ribose directly, first thing in the morning with a glass on water and a second dose later in the day. A serving of D-ribose is 5 grams, and most people take 5-20 grams daily.

    What is HMB?

    HMB or Beta-Hydroxy Beta-methylbutyrate is a byproduct of the normal breakdown of the amino acid Leucine. It is therefore a metabolite of the essential amino acid - Leucine. HMB is produced in our body from the proteins in our diet and is also consumed in small amounts from the foods we eat. Foods like catfish and alfalfa contain small amounts of HMB.What benefits do HMB supplements have?HMB supplements help to gain muscle by minimizing the amount of muscle that is broken down after you train.

    You may get the following benefits:
    • Increased gains of lean muscle
    • Prevents muscle catabolism
    • Speeds up muscle repair and recovery times
    • Decreases body fat>
    • Decreases blood cholesterol levels
    • Increase VO2 max and endurance How HMB supplements work:HMB supplements help to slow down a process call proteolysis, which is the natural process of breaking down muscle tissue that occurs after intense physical activity (weight training in this case).
    Taking HMB gives the body a head start of muscle recovery by minimizing the amount of muscle breakdown and protein degradation after exercise. This means that you body stays in an anabolic state for longer allowing for more muscle growth.

    HMB supplements were first used by Iowa State University in cattle. Their tests found that by giving cattle HMB supplements they would produce more muscle tissue and less body fat. Studies were then carried out on humans with the same results. Iowa State University tested 40 men who trained for 4 weeks and found that the men who were given 3 grams of HMB per day built more muscle and lost more body fat the men who trained without HMB.Does HMB have any side effects?Published studies have been undertaken to measure the side effects of taking HMB supplements in men, women, children and the elderly. In 9 separate studies only positive effects were found on muscle, body fat, blood pressure and cholesterol.Can HMB be taken with other supplements?HMB supplements are commonly taken with whey protein, glutamine, creatine and carbs. In fact it's possible to buy blends which contain HMB with other products like creatine and whey protein. Taking HMB with other supplements will actually have a positive effect. For example creatine will give you the power to work your muscles harder and HMB will minimize muscle breakdown and recovery times.

    How much HMB you should take:Like many other muscle building supplements the recommended about of HMB you should be taking depends on your bodyweight. As a general guide, for people weighing up to 130lbs (60kg) 2 grams per day should be enough. For people weighing over 130lbs (60kg) a dosage of 4 grams per day is recommended. You should only take 1 gram at a time, so if you're over 130lbs take 1 gram 4 times per day.

    How long does it take HMB to work?Measurable increases in strength and muscle mass may be seen in 2-4 weeks.What does it do and what scientific studies give evidence to support this?Many of the world's champions and athletes are using HMB and receiving dramatic results. Specifically, HMB plays a role in the synthesis of muscle tissue. It has the ability to burn fat and build muscle consistently in response to exercise. Backed heavily by science, HMB works for NFL greats like Shannon Sharpe and Olympic medallists throughout the globe. New scientific studies are being conducted on this supplement all the time. Recently, a study showed in a control group supplementing with HMB, that after taking 3 grams of HMB per day for three weeks, those who took HMB versus the random placebo takers gained three times more muscle on their bench press! Animal studies also suggest that it may increase lean muscle mass. A study conducted on humans showed that those who supplemented with HMB experienced enhanced strength, greater endurance, and increased fat loss. It's ability to boost endurance alone is an incredible result.

    A seven week long study showed a much greater gain in muscle when a group of 28 participated in a regular weight-training program.

    How does HMB do all this?
    It appears to increase the rate of protein being used to increase muscle growth, while decreasing the atrophy or tear down of muscle that occurs. Are there any side effects or interactions?No safety issues have been reported in the limited number of studies currently available.

    At the time of writing, there were no well-known drug interactions with HMB.


    An amino acid ideal for cardiovascular health!
    Promotes energy!

    How Does L-Citrulline Powder Work?
    L-Citrulline is a nonessential amino acid that assists with the detoxification of ammonia from the liver. It's converted to L-arginine, then nitric oxide, in the bloodstream, supporting the body in optimizing blood flow.

    Benefits of L-citrulline include:
    • Helps combat fatigue
    • Helps detoxify ammonia in the liver minimizing damage to living cells.
    • L-Citrulline
    L-Citrulline Blood Flow, Detoxification, Sexual Performance Supports cardiovascular health by relaxing blood vessels, allowing for increased blood flow and more blood and nutrients circulating in the body. Helps the liver's detoxification process by converting toxic ammonia into urea for elimination. Produces nitric oxide, a key component in the relaxation and dilation of blood vessels, which not only supports cardiac function but also enhances sexual function and enjoyment.

    L Citrulline has the added benefit of being chemically recycled back into arginine in the endothelial cells of the blood vessels. Citrulline and arginine have similar benefits, however citrulline is a more active and readily available nutrient for cardio function, and it is also a preferred source of nitric oxide synthesis because a greater percentage is directed toward nitric oxide production. is an amino acid that supports the body in optimizing blood flow through its conversion to L-arginine and then nitric oxide. Nitric oxide is involved in vasodilatation and low levels are associated with mental and physical fatigue and sexual dysfunction. L-Citrulline ( like L-Arginine and L-Ornithine), is a metabolite in the urea cycle and is involved in liver detoxification and vasodilatation pathways. It is produced in the urea cycle when carbamoyl phosphate is converted to L-Citrulline in the ornithine carbamoyl transferees reaction. When endogenous supplies of ornithine carbamoyl transferees are insufficient, supplemental L-Citrulline has been shown to support ammonia incorporation and liver detoxification of ammonia Optimizes blood flow through conversion to L-arginine.

    Low levels have been associated with mental and physical fatigue and sexual disorders.
    • Each 1-1/2 tablespoon serving delivers 3,000 mg 3 grams of L-citrulline
    • Convenient powder mixes easily with juice or water

    L-Citrulline AKG 2:1

    Improve Aerobic Performance And Capacity!

    Citrulline is a non-essential amino acid:
    Overall, studies suggest that citrulline malate supplementation can boost athletic performance and enhance recovery by eliminating the amino acid breakdown products of protein metabolism and augmenting the detoxifying capacity of liver cells in removal of ammonium and lactate from the blood and plays a role in nitrogen balance and metabolic processes. Although not a component of most proteins in the body, citrulline is found in some specialized proteins in the hair, skin and neural cells. It is primarily synthesized from glutamine in the intestines but is also found naturally in trace amounts in some foods. Supplementation of citrulline malate to humans has shown promising results. In several human studies blood lactate concentrations were reduced and ammonia elimination was increase after physical exertion. Rapid recovery from physical effort correlated to the disappearance of lactate from blood after performance at a high level of acidosia suggesting an essential role in acid-base balance.


    Leucine is one of three branched-chain amino acids (the others are valine and isoleucine) that enhance energy, increase endurance, and aid in muscle tissue recovery and repair. L-Leucine is an essential amino acid and works with isoleucine and valine to protect muscle and act as fuel. This group also lowers elevated blood sugar levels and increases growth hormone production. Supplemental valine should always be combined with isoleucine and valine at a respective milligram ratio of 2:1:2.

    L-leucine is an essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.

    Description: White crystals or crystalline powder , slightly bitter taste.

    Synonyms: (2S)-α-2-amino-4-methylvaleric acid , L , leu , leucine, 2-amino-4-methylvaleric acid , (2S)-α-leucine
    Molecular formula: C6H13NO2
    Molecular Weight: 131.17
    CAS NO.: 56-89-3


    OKG supplements, taken at doses shown to be effective (10-15 grams per day) glutamine and arginine, which increase growth hormone levels and are regulators of protein synthesis. Studies show that OKG generates more glutamine and argininein the systemic circulation than when these substances are given orally.

    OKG is a salt formed by combining two molecules of the amino acid ornithine and one molecule of alpha-ketoglutarate. Because OKG seems to be involved in amino acid synthesis and protein availability many athletes supplement with OKG as a way to increase muscle mass, hormone levels and strength.

    Taking OKG decreases muscle protein catabolism (breakdown) and increases protein synthesis, in addition to promoting wound healing. OKG fulfills these functions by encouraging the secretion of insulin and human growth hormone, and by upregulating glutamine andarginine production. When given to trauma patients, there are significant increases in both IGF-1 and growth hormone levels.


    Ornithine is an amino acid that does not occur in proteins but is important in the formation of urea. L-Ornithine is a nonprotein amino acid. It is used in the body in the biosynthesis of L-arginine, L-proline and polyamines..

    L-Ornithine is a basic amino acid, positively charged at physiological pH. It is also known as alpha,delta-diaminovaleric acid and 2,5-diaminopentanoic acid. Its molecular formula is C5H12N2O2, and its molecular weight is 132.16 daltons..

    L-Ornithine is used as a nutritional supplement principally for its putative anabolic activity. There is little evidence to support this use. However, a derivative of L-ornithine called ornithine alpha-ketoglutarate or OKG may, under certain conditions, have immunomodulatory and anticatabolic and/or anabolic actions..

    Ornithine is important because it induces the release of growth hormone in the body, which in turn helps with fat metabolism. Ornithine is required for a properly functioning immune system and liver. It assists in ammonia detoxification and liver Rejuvenation. Ornithine helps healing and repairing skin and tissue and is found in both these body parts.. Ornithine is helpful for people recouping after surgery and athletes may benefit from this nutrient..

    L-Ornithine can be changed into L-Arginine in the body and it functions similarly in growth hormone release.

    What is Trans Resveratrol?

    Resveratrol is a phenolic compound that has been found to have strong antioxidant activity. Plants create resveratrol to protect themselves against the effects of poor growing conditions and severe weather. Resveratrol has been shown to reduce the oxidation of LDL cholesterol, total cholesterol and the risk of cardiovascular disease. Other recent studies on animals have shown resveratrol to increase athletic endurance and dramatically increase life-span.

    Why Trans Resveratrol Is Better?
    In nature, resveratrol exists in two different isomers, trans- and cis-; these prefixes refer to the shape of the molecule. It is believed that trans-resveratrol is the biologically active of the two isomers, which is why we only label for this active "trans-resveratrol" molecule.


    L-valine is a branched-chain essential amino acid (BCAA) that has stimulant activity. It promotes muscle growth and tissue repair. It is a precursor in the penicillin biosynthetic pathway. Valine is one of three branched-chain amino acids (the others are leucine and isoleucine) that enhance energy, increase endurance, and aid in muscle tissue recovery and repair. This group also lowers elevated blood sugar levels and increases growth hormone production. Supplemental valine should always be combined with isoleucine and leucine at a respective milligram ratio of 2:1:2. It is an essential amino acid found in proteins; important for optimal growth in infants and for growth in children and nitrogen balance in adults. The lack of L-valine may influence the growth of body, cause neuropathic obstacle, anaemia. It has wide applications in the field of pharmaceutical and food industry.

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